Should I power the Arduino with the buck converter parallel to the same PSU (the 12V 20A Solar Charge Controller) I'm using for the pumps
Yes. However I wouldn't use a 9V buck regulator, but a 5V one and feed it to the 5V pin. That way you bypass the wasteful LDO on the Arduino, and when running from solar every bit of power saving you can muster helps.
If the power supply has sufficient power and voltage stability, you can use it to power the LED and Arduino. However, the circuit is not entirely correct on the LED side, a current limiting resistor should be used in series with the LED. I would also recommend using a more powerful bipolar transistor or field effect transistor.