@Bram, @jsotola is highlighting in the comments that the example photo you show with a 9 pin keyed two row connector has two usb cables connecting to it. USB connections often have four wires each. The standard wire color coding is:
(Source Wikipedia - USB)
Board manufacturers are often looking for a simple way to connect multiple panel mount USB ports to ...
You cannot power items from the VIN pin of the NodeMCU V3.
The power circuit is like this:
simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab
As you can see no current can flow out of the VIN pin because of diode D2.
You could, though, draw current out of the VU pin, though (situated at the top left of the board when the text is normally ...
The folks over at Random Nerd Tutorials offer a solution for this exact scenario using a HLK-PM03 Hi-Link 100-240V AC to 3.3V 1A DC converter. They add electrical and thermal fuses to mitigate some of the possible failure modes of over-temperature or over-current.
The specifications of the HLK-PM03 are here. I suspect there will be a few alternatives ...