I have a domain.
It is hosted by GoDaddy.
You have my deepest sympathies.
I need to connect that server and receive some data by executing PHP files.
I am not sure about the components.
Tutorials on internet describes how to control esp8266 from web server which is i do not want.
"Controlling" an ESP8266 from a web server is ...
An Arduino Uno doesn't have a Real Time Clock, but you could contact a NTP time server on the internet using the WiFi shield you mention, and get the time from there, and then keep track of time using millis(). Every so often, you should adjust the time with a new call to the NTP time server, because the Arduino's clock isn't all that accurate.
The easiest ...
I found another way to include a literal file (html, css, or other) and assign it to a constant string without resorting to make files:
Add one line of code on top of your html (css, js, etc) file, and another at the bottom, and save it with an extra .h extension. Then include that file in de Arduino IDE.
This could easily be done by a (manually executed) ...
Yes, and it's not too hard, but do you do need to do string parsing in C to achieve it.
In your code you read the header of the HTTP request byte by byte and send it to serial, essentially discarding it.
Instead you need to read the header line by line (at least the first line) and parse the URL parameters.
The format of the first line should be something ...