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"Ground" is just a lump of metal and each ground "pin" is connected to it. That includes the ground connection in the barrel jack. It's all one thing. Wherever you connect your fan's ground to it's all ground. That is, as long as all grounds external to the Arduino are connected, ultimately, to the Arudino.


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Smoke is a definite sign something failed. The LED (power indicator)is independent of the microprocessor, it just indicates power is applied in the appropriate direction. Go to the basics, and load the simple blink sketch and see if it works, if so you are lucky. You then might want to write some code to check all the outputs and inputs. It is possible you ...


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Your current signal will also show PWM, so you will need to filter that before measuring. It would be much simpler if you could rearrange your circuit to put the sense resistor on the ground side of the MOSFET, since then you can use a simple RC filter and a single A0 measurement. Also, you wouldn't have to worry about the no-load voltage from the solar ...


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Good to have you here. Try this link, it should answer most of your questions in one or two settings. https://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/ This one will help as well: https: //www.electronics-tutorials.ws/category/dccircuits I used this as my search term: "tutorial on basic DC electronics" This project will take a lot of time but you can have a ...


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To expand on JRobert's answer, think of the energy as coming from the +5 pin (assuming an UNO, etc), which is like a water tower as source of pressure. If you open a valve from the water tower, the water will flow under pressure and fall to the ground. If you put a water wheel (electrical component) in the path, the flowing water will make it turn. A good ...


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The energy comes from the chemistry of the battery (Wikipedia link), or from burning fuel (in an engine) to drive a generator that uses magnets to induce a voltage in a coil of wire. This creates the flow of electrons that does work within the circuit. 'Ground' is the zero-voltage reference point. All other voltages in the system are measured against it, and ...


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