The datasheets for the AVR microcontrollers are reasonably good to read. Just Google for the exact controller on your Arduino (eg. ATmege328) and find the "Complete" datasheet on the atmel.com website. Don't download the "Summary", it doesn't include a lot of information. Download the datasheet from atmel.com, that is the only location with the most recent ...
You don't need to abandon the Arduino IDE.
Let me quote from my forum post about sketch sizes.
Every now and again this subject pops up on the Arduino forum. Why does it take 1000 bytes to blink an LED? Why, oh why? It is obviously very bloated, eh?
Let's check that claim first.
The "blink" sketch, as shipped with the IDE (...
The address you are looking for is a symbol known by the linker. Then
you can have the linker put the value of the symbol straight into your
code: no need to load from memory. In other words, you use the ldi
instruction to load the required address as an immediate value. You
should also reverse the order of the struct definition, since you are
storing SPL at ...
First, mmap() makes almost no sense on an AVR, as there's no memory management unit or concept of process memory to configure. Some related concepts like sbrk() are occasionally implemented in a minimalist fashion to let library functions designed for larger computers work, but they typically only update a tracking variable or fail. For things that ...
I've tried this code with arduino and it worked (i taught, of course, i can't add the "-Wl,--section-start=.app_start=0xFA0" flag to the compilation process so the function not gonna be moved to other section)
So i set the arudino IDE to show every command from the compilation to the end of the upload process.
The problem lies in the usage of avr-objdump, ...
Since you will end up using a significant portion of the Arduino core
library, the easiest path is to accept the idea that you are now writing
“Arduino sketches” rather than plain C++ code. Don't resist, be
assimilated, fire the IDE and write setup() and loop(). ;-)
Once you have something working, the next step is to get rid of the IDE,
which is admittedly ...
In file included from led.c:3:0:
/usr/lib/avr/include/util/delay.h:95:3: warning: #warning "Compiler
optimizations disabled; functions from won't work as designed"
You should start by fixing this. Simply add -Os to the compiler
command line. This means “optimize for size”, and is the standard
optimization option used with Arduinos.
avr-objcopy -j ....
First, install and get familiar with version 1.6.x of the Arduino IDE. Then, under the sketchbook directory, within hardware/nex/avr/ (create the directories if they don't exist) create the following files:
# NEX Robotics Fire Bird V
# Only ATmega2560@14.7456MHz supported for now
nexfirebirdv2560m14.name=Fire Bird V ATMEGA2560 @ 14.7456 MHz
If you don't want to use the Terminal and the command line, the Arduino IDE is your best option. Get yourself an AVR programmer (or an Arduino Uno to serve as programmer, with the ArduinoISP sketch uploaded), and code on it.
Then connect your Arduino to your module via SPI. Select the correct processor and port.
You can now upload the sketch:
First make sure you add -g to all your compilation commands.
Then you can run avr-objdump -S build/spi.elf (for instance).
Also I see you're missing the MCU definition in your link command. Without that it won't link in the proper C startup routines and your program will most probably not run.
Here is a makefile I use:
As stated the IDE's equivalent to the make will compile anything everything it can find, in scope. But its linker has eliminate garbage enabled, hence anything not called or not static will not be linked into the EXE.
You can "avr-objdump -t" to create a map from your elf. And -d for an assembly listing. As to see exactly what is in the EXE, for your self. ...
Almost all of my projects are roll-your-own-duinos with Atmega 328p chips, with code generated for an "Arduino/Genuino Uno" board. Many of them use an ESP8266-01 board as a WiFi interface. I either run the entire board at 3.3v or use a daughter-board that interfaces the ESP to a 5v environment.
If you're porting code from an actual Arduino Uno, there is ...
You are using $(CPPFLAGS) for *.cpp files but only $(CXXFLAGS) are defined.
This should be obvious from command line (if you enable showing executed commands for make)
using $(CPP) again only $(CXX) is defined
And don't forget Makefile needs tabs for indenting target commands (here you have four spaces, but it might be just replaced by SE)
If you like the Arduino IDE, you also can do the following:
Do not use the library functions, but use registers directly.
The compiler is smart enough that it does not link functions you do not use with your executable/binary.
Optimize your code by
Checking if you can simplify algorithms
Remove unnecessary statements
Remove global variables (maybe move ...
You forgot the -c flag to your first command. That means you have first compiled your program into a full elf file. Then you try to link that elf file with the standard startup libraries again (it already contains them) into another new elf file.
And so you get duplicate entries in it.
Add -c to your first command, which means "compile only, don't link" to ...
The boards packages maintained by Boards Manager and associated tools are installed in .arduino15 folder. The AVR boards package bundled with IDE is only used when there is no AVR boards package version in the .arduino15 folder.
To locate the .arduino15 folder open Preferences in IDE and there at the bottom of the window is displayed the location of the ...
At 1MHz and 9600 baud, you have a total of 104 clock cycles available to run your interrupt routine in. A quick count up of the assembly instructions generated comes to more than that (around 126 at first glance), so you can't fit it into the time.
As a result, your baud rate will actually be lower than 9600, and the chip will be completely starved of ...
.ino is compiled as C++. your test is C code. put the C code in a .c file and the declaration in .h file and include the .h in .ino
I created a test.c, copied the content of your main.c into it and renamed the main function to test().
Then I created a test.h with
extern "C" void test(char * buff);
and in ino setup()...
I’m guessing you started with the toolchain Arduino put on your machine.
Try explicitly including the header files on the include path with the -I switch.
avr-gcc -mmcu=atmega328p -I /path/to/avr/include -o main.out main.c
Just search for the io.h file. It should be somewhere close by to where you found the compiler.
You need to do a whole lot more than just run the one command.
You need to compile each individual source file for the libraries you want (using -c to just compile and not link), then (ideally) archive them into a library file. Do the same for the core. Then you need to add paths to your sketch compilation command pointing to where the header files are for ...
Any of these are straightforward: python (serial library) or processing (same type of user interface, will happily build portable java programs for linux/win/mac). I use an awful perl script for logging stuff, can't recommend it. If you don't prefer the two first options, have a look at IPC::Open2 or IPC::Open3 - I use a bidirectional connection so I can ...
As far as I understand you are using eclipse CDT directly. (I mean you are not using an "arduino eclipse plugin" that does the stuff below for you)
The first thing to understand is that a arduino library is not treated as a library when compiling a arduino sketch.
In other words in the Arduino IDE, a arduino library is compiled like standard source code ...
Check this out: http://arduino.cc/en/Reference/PortManipulation
As for other ports and pins, check put the datasheet for your controller, they're really useful to people who can understand them! :)