Using the 1.1V internal analog reference to measure a draining VCC
source by using a voltage divider on it
You could indeed use a voltage divider, and measure a scaled-down Vcc
against the internal 1.1 V reference. This is, however, not what
the code you posted is doing. It is instead measuring the internal
reference against Vcc, as stated in the comment ...
The PIC32 has full (or nearly full) support for the Arduino API through the chipKIT project. If you want to use one of the smaller PIC chips (PIC16 / PIC18 etc) then you're out of luck. There just isn't a freely available C++ compiler for those chips, so the Arduino API can never really be ported to them.
I have, in the past, cobbled together an Arduino-...
User line_code from forum.arduino.cc recently received an ATMEGA328P-U (or actually ATMEGA328P U) from Mouser (a company which you would not suspect to send out fakes or source from the gray market). He asked Mouser (who contacted the manufacturer Microchip) and got the following response:
As part of Part marking change due to the migration from Atmel to
You change cathodes (digits) before latching in the new data. So for a spit second the data for the previous digits is shown on the current digit.
Swapping digitalWrite(CAS[count], HIGH); and digitalWrite(latch, HIGH); should fix that.
If anyone else is confused by this:
Will it hurt your Arduino?
No, this is a internal voltage reference between VCC & the 1.1v internal analog reference.
Is a voltage divider necessary?
Not unless you have something external of the Arduino to measure!
Is the internal reference actually 1.1v?
No, it seems like each pro mini I have the the 1.1v ...
There are two things wrong with the circuit in that demo.
There is no decoupling capacitor on the power pins. This is required to keep the power stable during opertaion.
More critically: this is being powered from 3.3V, but is being run at 16MHz. That is outside specifications. You should use an 8MHz crystal to operate at 3.3V.
A compiled sketch will run just fine on a bare ATmega328p, if all the necessary surrounding components are there, and if you have a way to program it.
This could be as simple as putting the chip on the Uno and programming it there. Don't do that too often; the socket isn't intended for that. You could get a 28-pin ZIF socket, though.
There are a few things ...
The ATMega328P datasheet has the following table in it:
The top 5 bits of the of the Extended Fuse Byte are default 1 and are reserved. You're not really supposed to change them, since they might be used in the future for a 328P-like part and setting them to something other than 1 could have unexpected results. In the 328PB variant bit number 3 is used ...
Are the ATMEGA and STM32 programmers not universal?
They are not the same. As far as I know their programming arrangements are completely distinct.
What programming methods can this chip support?
Traditional AVR In-Circuit-Serial-Programming (ICSP) using a 2x3 header pin connector and one of a variety of programmers such as the STK500 which has low-cost ...
If using optimization, the compiler is smart enough to recognize this.
Since your example is so short, it could be optimized away entirely.
To ensure that doesn't happen, the results in c and r have to be used in some way.
Also, if a and b could never change, the values of c and r would be calculated during compilation.
Therefore, I put the calculation in ...
So how long will my clock run if is it supposed to be online 24/7
Until you turn it off or a stray neutrino corrupts the flash memory, or the flash memory degrades (20-100 years or so depending on temperature).
Should I reset it sometimes? If yes , when, after how many days should I reset it?
And do I need a coolant system for it? (I guess not)
You only need to change the IC, not the entire board. The microcontroller IS the IC.
Also, you will not see any degradation, it will just 'suddenly' fail, or starting to fail sometimes, without any warning or counter that counts up/down to 10,000.
Also keep in mind that this number is the MINIMUM guaranteed value, most ICs will go much further.
The best way ...
You can't just replace the processor on the UNO with something better. The 328P is pretty much the best MCU there is in the pinout for that board.
Instead you can replace the whole UNO with something more powerful.
My board of choice for AI work would have to be one based on the Kendryte K210 chip, such as the Maixduino (which is helpfully in an UNO ...
First of all, 3000 RPM is only 50 Hz, so sampling is not a problem for the fundamental frequency. But you usually want to see harmonics, to pick up gear tooth issues, etc.
I suggest using my Daqarta software with a sound card to do your initial testing. It already does everything you need, including waveform, spectrum, and spectrogram displays plus a lot ...
You need to keep the ground plane away from the antenna. The rest of the module doesn't care (and having a ground plane under it can help with unwanted EMI).
Here's a design I did recently for a customer with the same module in it. It's placed near the edge of the PCB with the ground plane cut out around the antenna:
That layout is actually set up for ...
The Wire library does not give you any possibility to get error states, when requesting bytes from a slave. Basically you are stuck with the number of bytes being read.
Though you can read some information from that. If the number of bytes is zero, the slave didn't answer (either because its not there, or because it cannot send any byte currently). This ...
I am not set up to test your code right now, perhaps later. But:
; Set the prescalar to 256 in the Timer Control 1B register
ldi r16, 0b00000111
sts TCCR1B, r16
When set to ones, the low order three bits of TCCR1B, select an external clock source at the T1 pin, for clocking on a rising edge. Probably what's happening is that when you ...
There is one part of the tutorial that is incorrect - or rather missing.
When you open the serial port the Arduino resets. That includes when the serial port is opened by avrdude.
You need to prevent that from happening, so that the ArduinoISP sketch receives the serial data, not the Arduino's bootloader.
There's a number of ways of doing that:
Add a 10uF ...
You need at least one pull-up on the SDA pin and at least one pull-up on the SCL pin. You cannot use the same pull-up for both pins as you will be shorting the two pins together.
The pull-ups are required on the I2C signals, not the pins of a chip. If you have multiple chips on the I2C bus you only need one pull-up on each signal. It really doesn't matter (...
So does "Update of OCR1x at" mean that only when when the pulse wave form has reached the value of BOTTOM (or the end of a period), that's when the value of OCR1x will be passed on to the OCx pins...
Yes, that's what it means. To prevent glitches in the PWM output, you frequently do NOT want the PWM waveform to change immediately the instant you ...
By defining your own main() you are circumventing the Arduino startup procedures.
Normally with Arduino code main() first runs an init() function before setup() and (repeatedly) loop(). This init() function will configure, amongst other things, the timer for millis() and delay().
This is the normal main() for a basic AVR-based board:
IT WORKED, FINALLY. I followed this tutorial: https://www.electronics-lab.com/project/installing-the-arduino-bootloader-on-the-atmega328p-microcontroller/, followed exactly as it is explained, made the connections (nothing more, nothing less; I even removed the LED on pin 19 and its resistor) and to my surprise... the bootloader was actually loaded and the ...
Instead of calling analogRead(), this sketch performs the equivalent actions by directly manipulating the hardware registers to begin a conversion, wait until the conversion is complete, and collect the converted value.
Just reading the final value is accomplished by the statements:
result = ADCL;
result |= ADCH<<8;
All of the statements following ...
That sounds about right.
The only problem is that normally, when a serial connection is created, the Arduino's reset pin is briefly pulled LOW. You would have to do that manually on the ATMega on your breadboard. I can be a bit tricky to get the timing right.
There is no easy way to get this signal to your breadboard ATMega, while keeping the reset pin on ...
ISP programmers typically default to low ISP clock rates. Often something like 10khz, sometimes slower, probably to just work by default with very slowly clocked AVR chips. The ISP clock rate must be about one eigth that of the AVR's clock. For example, by defaulting to a low rate like 10Khz, the programmer will successfully communicate with an AVR ...
Yes, you can use the same sketch and also the same HEX file. Though the uploading depends on your actual setup. If you include a UART USB bridge, like the Arduino has, then you can upload over USB (assuming you have burned the bootloader to the Atmega328p). Otherwise you can use your Arduino as an ISP programmer and burn your sketch onto the Atmega through ...
I've built PCBs with a standalone ATMega328p chip on them before for situations where I wanted all my electronics embedded onto a single board. It can be a great learning experience imo.
I would suggest first creating a schematic and implementing it on a breadboard with DIP packages as seen on the photo. You will need a crystal, loading caps (22 pF), as well ...
My primary concerns are regarding the sampling speed of the ATMEGA328P
The ATmega328 can sample up to ~10ksps (kilo-samples-per-second) in normal configuration and at 10-bit ADC resolution, or reliably and with good (near 10-bit) resolution up to ~50ksps if you speed up the ADC clock. You can get even faster if you want to sacrifice a lot on sample ...