Those are unused resistors in resistor arrays. The arrays have 4 resistors side by side in a single package. Not all of the elements are always needed, but they have to be in the schematic anyway since they exist in real life.
Elements A and D of Resistor Network 1 (RN1)
Elements B and C of Resistor Network 2 (RN2)
Element C of Resistor Network 3 (RN3)
I would use a programming concept called a state machine. For example an integer variable called State could be used to track the current status which could for example be WAITING_FOR_DATA or RECEIVING_DATA or DATA_COMPLETE and only print when DATA_COMPLETE. I'm sure there are plenty of examples you could find with an appropriate search.
1.prefer using Serial.readStringUntil(); OR Serial.readString() that way its much easy to manipulate.
2.use a static variable in loop function which stores the string or use a global variable to save char array tagString1 before going in println function same goes with the second reader that way the println will show the previous scan until a new scan is ...
This is the DTR output of the ATmega16u2 which is connected to RESET pin of the ATmega2560 for reset by avrdude over DTR signal before upload of the sketch. There is a trace by default. Cutting the trace disables the auto-reset. Soldering a bridge on RESET-EN pads re-enables the auto-reset.
the schematics part you quoted in question misses the long ...
Here you can find the manual of your stepper driver.
Look at page in the section "CN3 (I/O signals)". Beside the pulse and directions, that you already set in your code, there are 2 more input signals defined: AWO will turn off the motor completely, if you provide a signal, CS changes the source of the step angle setting. As you don't configure any pins, ...
There is not enough context to be certain, but given the variable names I can assume that this is code from a sketch that receives information from an RC controller and is intended to control parts of some form of flying craft.
So with that in mind, let's take this line:
I assume that this is to calculate the amount the ...