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I am a hobbyist & know little about electronics.

I am making a robot arm, like this one. For which I will need 2 stepper motors (for elbow & shoulder joint) & 4 simple DC motors.

Which means I will need to allocate a lot of pins on my board (Uno).

So I was just reading about I2C & then eventually SPI. My question is:

  1. Is it possible to control 6 motors (or atleast 2 steppers) with I2C or SPI (assuming the motors are powered by seperate source), if so can you point me to someone's example code.
  2. If not possible, how do I overcome the shortage of pins, because I have already dedicated them to many sensors.
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For the stepper motors, the easiest way to work with them is by using a very common A4988 board which is widely used with 3D printers. The controls are very easy and for them I send you this question which I answered some time ago.

Then, you say that you haven't got a lot of connections left on your UNO board, so I think that SPI would't be very useful, as it takes 3 pins for the data transmission (SCLK, MOSI, MISO) plus one pin for every device you connect.

The best way (even if it is a little slower that SPI) is to use I2C, which needs that you leave unused analog input pins A4 and A5, as they are the I2C BUS. Unfortunately I haven't any knowledge about I2C DC motor drivers.

For the steppers, I suggest to take a look at this, but it depends by your budget for what you can buy.

You could fix the pin shortage problem by adding some 74HC595 shift registers. They aren't very expensive (less than a dollar, or if you live in europe, .5€) and they can be daisy-chained. To control them, see the Arduino website tutorial.

Finally, if the pins that you use are inputs, use a 74HC165, which is the opposite of a 595. As always, see the Arduino website tutorial.

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