How to set the registers of Arduino through python code to vary the sampling rate of Arduino? Can we control Arduino through python?
If you mean can you run a python script on a "PC" and send messages to an Arduino then yes but you would need to write code that ran on the Arduino to receive messages from the "PC" and turn those into actions on the Arduino.
If you mean can you run a python script on an Arduino directly, well yes you can there are python implementations for Arduinos, but if you go down this route you need to remember you only have a small amount of memory and you are going off piste where there will be little or no help.
Honestly I would learn how to program the arduino in C++ and stick to that.