1

I am currently doing the project in pulse measurement using an Arduino Yún. I am using the pulse sensor SEN-11574.

When I verify the code I get this error:

Arduino: 1.5.8 (Linux), Board: "Arduino Yún"

pulse-sensor-arduino/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o: In function `PulseSensor::begin(int)':
/home/system1/Arduino/libraries/pulse-sensor-arduino/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp:39: multiple definition of `pulsePin'
sketch_feb10a.cpp.o:/home/system1/Downloads/arduino-1.5.8/sketch_feb10a.ino:18: first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduino/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o: In function `PulseSensor::begin(int)':
/home/system1/Arduino/libraries/pulse-sensor-arduino/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp:39: multiple definition of `Pulse'
sketch_feb10a.cpp.o:/home/system1/Downloads/arduino-1.5.8/sketch_feb10a.ino:18: first defined here
collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status
Error compiling.

This is my code:

#include <pulse-sensor-arduino.h>

int pulsePin = 0;
int blinkPin = 13;
int fadePin = 5;
int fadeRate = 0;


volatile int BPM;
volatile int Signal;
volatile int IBI = 600;
volatile boolean Pulse = false;
volatile boolean QS = false;


void setup() {

    pinMode(blinkPin, OUTPUT);
    pinMode(fadePin, OUTPUT);
    Serial.begin(115200);
}

void loop() {

    sendDataToProcessing('S', Signal);
    if (QS == true) {
        fadeRate = 255;
        sendDataToProcessing('B',BPM);
        sendDataToProcessing('Q',IBI);
        QS = false;
    }

    ledFadeToBeat();

    delay(5000);
}


void ledFadeToBeat() {
    fadeRate -= 15;
    fadeRate = constrain(fadeRate,0,255);
    analogWrite(fadePin,fadeRate);
}


void sendDataToProcessing(char symbol, int data ) {
    Serial.print(symbol);
    Serial.println(data);
}

This is my pulse Arduino cpp file:

#include "pulse-sensor-arduino.h"

volatile int rate[10];                        // Array to hold last ten IBI values
volatile unsigned long sampleCounter = 0;     // Used to determine pulse timing
volatile unsigned long lastBeatTime = 0;      // Used to find IBI
volatile int P =512;                          // Used to find peak in pulse wave, seeded
volatile int T = 512;                         // Used to find trough in pulse wave, seeded
volatile int thresh = 512;                    // Used to find instant moment of heart beat, seeded
volatile int amp = 100;                       // Used to hold amplitude of pulse waveform, seeded
volatile boolean firstBeat = true;            // Used to seed rate array so we startup with reasonable BPM
volatile boolean secondBeat = false;          // Used to seed rate array so we startup with reasonable BPM
volatile boolean Pulse = false;               // True when pulse wave is high, false when it's low
volatile int pulsePin;

volatile int PulseSensor::IBI = 600;          // Holds the time between beats, must be seeded!
volatile int PulseSensor::BPM;                // Used to hold the pulse rate
volatile int PulseSensor::Signal;             // Holds the incoming raw data
volatile boolean PulseSensor::QS = false;     // Becomes true when Arduino finds a beat

void PulseSensor::begin(int pPin)
{
  pinMode(pulsePin, INPUT);
  pulsePin = pPin;

  // Initializes Timer1 to throw an interrupt every 2 ms.
  TCCR1A = 0x00;
  TCCR1B = 0x0C;  // CTC (Compare match mode) and ClockIO/256
  OCR1A = 0x7C;   // 2 ms
  TIMSK1 = 0x02;
  sei();          // MAKE SURE GLOBAL INTERRUPTS ARE ENABLED
}

// THIS IS THE TIMER 1 INTERRUPT SERVICE ROUTINE.
// Timer 1 makes sure that we take a reading every 2 miliseconds
ISR(TIMER1_COMPA_vect)
{                         // Triggered when Timer1 counts to 124
  cli();                                      // Disable interrupts while we do this
  PulseSensor::Signal = analogRead(pulsePin); // Read the Pulse Sensor
  sampleCounter += 2;                         // Keep track of the time in ms with this variable
  int N = sampleCounter - lastBeatTime;       // Monitor the time since the last beat to avoid noise

  // Find the peak and trough of the pulse wave
  if(PulseSensor::Signal < thresh && N > (PulseSensor::IBI/5)*3){       // Avoid dichrotic noise by waiting 3/5 of last IBI
    if (PulseSensor::Signal < T){                        // T is the trough
      T = PulseSensor::Signal;                         // Keep track of lowest point in pulse wave
    }
  }

  if(PulseSensor::Signal > thresh && PulseSensor::Signal > P){          // Threshold condition helps avoid noise
    P = PulseSensor::Signal;                             // P is the peak
  }                                        // Keep track of highest point in pulse wave

  //  NOW IT'S TIME TO LOOK FOR THE HEART BEAT
  //
  // The signal surges up in value every time there is a pulse
  if (N > 250){                                   // Avoid high-frequency noise
    if ( (PulseSensor::Signal > thresh) && (Pulse == false) && (N > (PulseSensor::IBI/5)*3) )
    {
      Pulse = true;                               // Set the Pulse flag when we think there is a pulse
      PulseSensor::IBI = sampleCounter - lastBeatTime;         // Measure time between beats in mS
      lastBeatTime = sampleCounter;               // Keep track of time for next pulse

      if(secondBeat){                        // If this is the second beat, if secondBeat == TRUE
        secondBeat = false;                  // Clear secondBeat flag
        for(int i=0; i<=9; i++){             // Seed the running total to get a realisitic BPM at startup
          rate[i] = PulseSensor::IBI;
        }
      }

      if(firstBeat){                         // If it's the first time we found a beat, if firstBeat == TRUE
        firstBeat = false;                   // Clear firstBeat flag
        secondBeat = true;                   // Set the second beat flag
        sei();                               // Enable interrupts again
        return;                              // IBI value is unreliable so discard it
      }


      // Keep a running total of the last 10 IBI values
      word runningTotal = 0;                  // Clear the runningTotal variable

      for(int i=0; i<=8; i++){                // Shift data in the rate array
        rate[i] = rate[i+1];                  // And drop the oldest IBI value
        runningTotal += rate[i];              // Add up the 9 oldest IBI values
      }

      rate[9] = PulseSensor::IBI;                          // add the latest IBI to the rate array
      runningTotal += rate[9];                // Add the latest IBI to runningTotal
      runningTotal /= 10;                     // Average the last 10 IBI values
      PulseSensor::BPM = 60000/runningTotal;               // How many beats can fit into a minute? that's BPM!
      PulseSensor::QS = true;                              // Set Quantified Self flag
      // QS FLAG IS NOT CLEARED INSIDE THIS ISR
    }
  }

  if (PulseSensor::Signal < thresh && Pulse == true){   // When the values are going down, the beat is over
    Pulse = false;                         // Reset the Pulse flag so we can do it again
    amp = P - T;                           // Get amplitude of the pulse wave
    thresh = amp/2 + T;                    // Set thresh at 50% of the amplitude
    P = thresh;                            // Reset these for next time
    T = thresh;
  }

  if (N > 2500){                           // If 2.5 seconds go by without a beat
    thresh = 512;                          // Set thresh default
    P = 512;                               // Set P default
    T = 512;                               // Set T default
    lastBeatTime = sampleCounter;          // Bring the lastBeatTime up to date
    firstBeat = true;                      // Set these to avoid noise
    secondBeat = false;                    // When we get the heartbeat back
  }

  sei();                                   // Enable interrupts when youre done!
} // end ISR

This is my pulse Arduino header file:

#ifndef PULSE_SENSOR_ARDUINO_H
#define PULSE_SENSOR_ARDUINO_H

#include "Arduino.h"

class PulseSensor
{
public:
  static void begin(int pulsePin);

  static volatile int BPM;
  static volatile int Signal;
  static volatile int IBI;
  static volatile boolean QS;
};

#endif

I modified the program, but there is a new error present:

Arduino: 1.5.8 (Linux), Board: "Arduino Yún"

pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o: In function `PulseSensor::begin(int)':
/home/system1/Arduino/libraries/pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp:39: multiple definition of `PulseSensor::begin(int)'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:pulsesensor.cpp:39: first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o: In function `PulseSensor::begin(int)':
/home/system1/Arduino/libraries/pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp:39: multiple definition of `pulsePin'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:pulsesensor.cpp:39: first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o: In function `__vector_17':
/home/system1/Arduino/libraries/pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp:54: multiple definition of `__vector_17'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:pulsesensor.cpp:54: first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o: In function `PulseSensor::begin(int)':
/home/system1/Arduino/libraries/pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp:39: multiple definition of `PulseSensor::Signal'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:pulsesensor.cpp:39: first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o: In function `PulseSensor::begin(int)':
/home/system1/Arduino/libraries/pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp:39: multiple definition of `sampleCounter'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:pulsesensor.cpp:39: first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o: In function `PulseSensor::begin(int)':
/home/system1/Arduino/libraries/pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp:39: multiple definition of `lastBeatTime'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:pulsesensor.cpp:39: first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o:(.data.thresh+0x0): multiple definition of `thresh'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:(.data.thresh+0x0): first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o:(.data._ZN11PulseSensor3IBIE+0x0): multiple definition of `PulseSensor::IBI'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:(.data._ZN11PulseSensor3IBIE+0x0): first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o:(.data.T+0x0): multiple definition of `T'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:(.data.T+0x0): first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o:(.data.P+0x0): multiple definition of `P'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:(.data.P+0x0): first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o: In function `PulseSensor::begin(int)':
/home/system1/Arduino/libraries/pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp:39: multiple definition of `Pulse'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:pulsesensor.cpp:39: first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o: In function `PulseSensor::begin(int)':
/home/system1/Arduino/libraries/pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp:39: multiple definition of `rate'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:pulsesensor.cpp:39: first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o: In function `PulseSensor::begin(int)':
/home/system1/Arduino/libraries/pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp:39: multiple definition of `PulseSensor::BPM'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:pulsesensor.cpp:39: first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o: In function `PulseSensor::begin(int)':
/home/system1/Arduino/libraries/pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp:39: multiple definition of `PulseSensor::QS'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:pulsesensor.cpp:39: first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o:(.data.firstBeat+0x0): multiple definition of `firstBeat'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:(.data.firstBeat+0x0): first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o: In function `PulseSensor::begin(int)':
/home/system1/Arduino/libraries/pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp:39: multiple definition of `secondBeat'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:pulsesensor.cpp:39: first defined here
pulse-sensor-arduinom/pulse-sensor-arduino.cpp.o:(.data.amp+0x0): multiple definition of `amp'
pulsesensor.cpp.o:(.data.amp+0x0): first defined here
collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status
Error compiling.

Here is my change code

#include <pulse-sensor-arduino.h>

int blinkPin = 13;                // Pin to blink LED at each beat
int fadePin = 5;                  // Pin to do fancy classy fading blink at each beat
int fadeRate = 0;                 // Used to fade LED on with PWM on fadePin


void setup(){
  pinMode(blinkPin,OUTPUT);         // Pin that will blink to your heartbeat!
  pinMode(fadePin,OUTPUT);          // Pin that will fade to your heartbeat!
  Serial.begin(115200);             // We agree to talk fast!

}


void loop(){
  sendDataToProcessing('P', PulseSensor::Signal);     // Send Processing the raw Pulse Sensor data
  if (PulseSensor::QS == true){                       // Quantified Self flag is true when arduino finds a heartbeat
    fadeRate = 255;                  // Set 'fadeRate' Variable to 255 to fade LED with pulse
    sendDataToProcessing('B',PulseSensor::BPM);   // Send heart rate with a 'B' prefix
    sendDataToProcessing('Q',PulseSensor::IBI);   // Send time between beats with a 'Q' prefix
    PulseSensor::QS = false;                      // Reset the Quantified Self flag for next time
  }

  ledFadeToBeat();

  delay(5000);                             //  Take a break
}


void ledFadeToBeat(){
  fadeRate -= 15;                         //  Set LED fade value
  fadeRate = constrain(fadeRate,0,255);   //  Keep LED fade value from going into negative numbers!
  analogWrite(fadePin,fadeRate);          //  Fade LED
}


void sendDataToProcessing(char symbol, int data ){
    Serial.print(symbol);                // Symbol prefix tells Processing what type of data is coming
    Serial.println(data);                // The data to send culminating in a carriage return
}

My cpp file:

#include "pulse-sensor-arduino.h"

volatile int rate[10];                        // Array to hold last ten IBI values
volatile unsigned long sampleCounter = 0;     // Used to determine pulse timing
volatile unsigned long lastBeatTime = 0;      // Used to find IBI
volatile int P =512;                          // Used to find peak in pulse wave, seeded
volatile int T = 512;                         // Used to find trough in pulse wave, seeded
volatile int thresh = 512;                    // Used to find instant moment of heart beat, seeded
volatile int amp = 100;                       // Used to hold amplitude of pulse waveform, seeded
volatile boolean firstBeat = true;            // Used to seed rate array so we startup with reasonable BPM
volatile boolean secondBeat = false;          // Used to seed rate array so we startup with reasonable BPM
volatile boolean Pulse = false;               // True when pulse wave is high, false when it's low
volatile int pulsePin;

volatile int PulseSensor::IBI = 600;          // Holds the time between beats, must be seeded!
volatile int PulseSensor::BPM;                // Used to hold the pulse rate
volatile int PulseSensor::Signal;             // Holds the incoming raw data
volatile boolean PulseSensor::QS = false;     // Becomes true when Arduino finds a beat

void PulseSensor::begin(int pPin)
{
  pinMode(pulsePin, INPUT);
  pulsePin = pPin;

  // Initializes Timer1 to throw an interrupt every 2 ms.
  TCCR1A = 0x00;
  TCCR1B = 0x0C;  // CTC (Compare match mode) and ClockIO/256
  OCR1A = 0x7C;   // 2 ms
  TIMSK1 = 0x02;
  sei();          // MAKE SURE GLOBAL INTERRUPTS ARE ENABLED
}

// THIS IS THE TIMER 1 INTERRUPT SERVICE ROUTINE.
// Timer 1 makes sure that we take a reading every 2 miliseconds
ISR(TIMER1_COMPA_vect)
{                         // Triggered when Timer1 counts to 124
  cli();                                      // Disable interrupts while we do this
  PulseSensor::Signal = analogRead(pulsePin);              // read the Pulse Sensor
  sampleCounter += 2;                         // Keep track of the time in ms with this variable
  int N = sampleCounter - lastBeatTime;       // Monitor the time since the last beat to avoid noise

  //  Find the peak and trough of the pulse wave
  if(PulseSensor::Signal < thresh && N > (PulseSensor::IBI/5)*3){       // Avoid dichrotic noise by waiting 3/5 of last IBI
    if (PulseSensor::Signal < T){                        // T is the trough
      T = PulseSensor::Signal;                         // Keep track of lowest point in pulse wave
    }
  }

  if(PulseSensor::Signal > thresh && PulseSensor::Signal > P){          // Threshold condition helps avoid noise
    P = PulseSensor::Signal;                             // P is the peak
  }                                        // Keep track of highest point in pulse wave

  //  NOW IT'S TIME TO LOOK FOR THE HEART BEAT
  // signal surges up in value every time there is a pulse
  if (N > 250){                                   // Avoid high frequency noise
    if ( (PulseSensor::Signal > thresh) && (Pulse == false) && (N > (PulseSensor::IBI/5)*3) )
    {
      Pulse = true;                               // Set the Pulse flag when we think there is a pulse
      PulseSensor::IBI = sampleCounter - lastBeatTime;         // measure time between beats in mS
      lastBeatTime = sampleCounter;               // Keep track of time for next pulse

      if(secondBeat){                        // If this is the second beat, if secondBeat == TRUE
        secondBeat = false;                  // Clear secondBeat flag
        for(int i=0; i<=9; i++){             // Seed the running total to get a realisitic BPM at startup
          rate[i] = PulseSensor::IBI;
        }
      }

      if(firstBeat){                         // If it's the first time we found a beat, if firstBeat == TRUE
        firstBeat = false;                   // Clear firstBeat flag
        secondBeat = true;                   // Set the second beat flag
        sei();                               // Enable interrupts again
        return;                              // IBI value is unreliable so discard it
      }


      // Keep a running total of the last 10 IBI values
      word runningTotal = 0;                  // Clear the runningTotal variable

      for(int i=0; i<=8; i++){                // Shift data in the rate array
        rate[i] = rate[i+1];                  // And drop the oldest IBI value
        runningTotal += rate[i];              // Add up the 9 oldest IBI values
      }

      rate[9] = PulseSensor::IBI;                          // Add the latest IBI to the rate array
      runningTotal += rate[9];                // Add the latest IBI to runningTotal
      runningTotal /= 10;                     // Average the last 10 IBI values
      PulseSensor::BPM = 60000/runningTotal;               // How many beats can fit into a minute? that's BPM!
      PulseSensor::QS = true;                              // Set Quantified Self flag
      // QS FLAG IS NOT CLEARED INSIDE THIS ISR
    }
  }

  if (PulseSensor::Signal < thresh && Pulse == true){   // When the values are going down, the beat is over
    Pulse = false;                         // Reset the Pulse flag so we can do it again
    amp = P - T;                           // Get amplitude of the pulse wave
    thresh = amp/2 + T;                    // Set thresh at 50% of the amplitude
    P = thresh;                            // Reset these for next time
    T = thresh;
  }

  if (N > 2500){                           // If 2.5 seconds go by without a beat
    thresh = 512;                          // Set thresh default
    P = 512;                               // Set P default
    T = 512;                               // Set T default
    lastBeatTime = sampleCounter;          // Bring the lastBeatTime up to date
    firstBeat = true;                      // Set these to avoid noise
    secondBeat = false;                    // When we get the heartbeat back
  }

  sei();                                   // Enable interrupts when youre done!
} // end ISR
2

(1)The declaration

 volatile boolean Pulse = false;     

occurs in two locations.

Is that intended?

(2) Also

volatile int PulseSensor::BPM;                // used to hold the pulse rate  
volatile int PulseSensor::IBI = 600;          // holds the time between beats, must be seeded!    
volatile int PulseSensor::Signal;             // holds the incoming raw data  

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