I have mosquitto MQTT installed on my VPS server which I can subscribe and publish to it using paho client thorugh websockets. However when I tried to connect to it through Arduino, I get the following error:

Attempting MQTT connection...failed, rc=-2 try again in 5 seconds
Attempting MQTT connection...failed, rc=-2 try again in 5 seconds
Attempting MQTT connection...failed, rc=-2 try again in 5 seconds

I uploaded the following code to arduino:

#include <ESP8266WiFi.h>
#include <PubSubClient.h>

// Update these with values suitable for your network.

const char* ssid = "IOT";
const char* password = "11112222";
const char* mqtt_server = "burooq.com";

WiFiClient espClient;
PubSubClient client(espClient);
unsigned long lastMsg = 0;
#define MSG_BUFFER_SIZE (50)
char msg[MSG_BUFFER_SIZE];
int value = 0;

void setup_wifi() {

  // We start by connecting to a WiFi network
  Serial.print("Connecting to ");

  WiFi.begin(ssid, password);

  while (WiFi.status() != WL_CONNECTED) {


  Serial.println("WiFi connected");
  Serial.println("IP address: ");

void callback(char* topic, byte* payload, unsigned int length) {
  Serial.print("Message arrived [");
  Serial.print("] ");
  for (int i = 0; i < length; i++) {

  // Switch on the LED if an 1 was received as first character
  if ((char)payload[0] == '1') {
    digitalWrite(BUILTIN_LED, LOW);   // Turn the LED on (Note that LOW is the voltage level
    // but actually the LED is on; this is because
    // it is active low on the ESP-01)
  } else {
    digitalWrite(BUILTIN_LED, HIGH);  // Turn the LED off by making the voltage HIGH


void reconnect() {
  // Loop until we're reconnected
  while (!client.connected()) {
    Serial.print("Attempting MQTT connection...");
    // Create a random client ID
    String clientId = "ESP8266Client-";
    clientId += String(random(0xffff), HEX);
    // Attempt to connect
    if (client.connect(clientId.c_str())) {
      // Once connected, publish an announcement...
      client.publish("test", "hello world");
      // ... and resubscribe
    } else {
      Serial.print("failed, rc=");
      Serial.println(" try again in 5 seconds");
      // Wait 5 seconds before retrying

void setup() {
  pinMode(BUILTIN_LED, OUTPUT);     // Initialize the BUILTIN_LED pin as an output
  client.setServer(mqtt_server, 1883);

void loop() {

  if (!client.connected()) {

  unsigned long now = millis();
  if (now - lastMsg > 2000) {
    lastMsg = now;
    snprintf (msg, MSG_BUFFER_SIZE, "hello world #%ld", value);
    Serial.print("Publish message: ");
    client.publish("test", msg);

i checked my server mosquitto ports which shows

mosquitto 10436       mosquitto    4u  IPv4   46043      0t0  TCP (LISTEN)

I checked my conf file and it has

listener 1883 localhost

so how what's wrong within my code or settings that prevents me from connecting to my server?`

  • does it work from other computer then the server? what is burooq.com?
    – Juraj
    Jan 18, 2021 at 9:53
  • @Juraj yes I can connect to using websocket from my computer. for burooq.com it is my server domain Jan 18, 2021 at 10:20
  • is 'your' computer other computer then the server computer?
    – Juraj
    Jan 18, 2021 at 11:05

1 Answer 1


This is the problem:

mosquitto 10436 mosquitto 4u IPv4 46043 0t0 TCP (LISTEN)

Your MQTT server is listening only on port That will accept local incoming connections only but nothing from another IP address.

The IP is the LOCAL ONLY IP address. You need to reconfigure your MQTT server to listen on either IP or whatever that server's actual IP address is.

Check your mosquitto.conf file and look for the line that begins with "bind_address":

listener 1883 localhost

change this to:

listener 1883

and restart your MQTT server.

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