The majority of the time adding a resistor to the data line is completely pointless. It only has an effect if the Arduino and the first WS2812B chip are connected over a long cable. By "long" I'm talking meters, not centimeters. The length of the strip of LEDs is irrelevant as each LED generates a fresh signal to send to the next LED. It's only the length of cable between the Arduino and the LED strip that matters.
If that is long you can get "ringing" and reflections of the signal through poorly matched impedances. The resistor is there to absorb some of those reflections and reduce the ringing by increasing the impedance of the Arduino's output.
What is a good value? Well, that's hard to say, since it's dependent on the length and type of cable in use. Too low a value and it will do nothing. Too high a value and it will "round off" your signal too much and you'll lose data. A typically chosen value that fits many situations is 220Ω.
But of course for short connections it's irrelevant and you shouldn't add a resistor.