I was doing some Ohm's Law calculations to calculate the voltage output from a 2-resistor voltage divider, the input will be with a maximum of 12 volts, I want the ATMega328 to measure that voltage, so I simply thought of putting two resistors in series with values of 330 ohms and 220 ohms like this:
simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab
Theoretically on paper the maximum voltage outputting from the node going to the ATMega328 is ~4.8V, but I want a special safety feature, I want to put in mind that at anytime the ground connection can be hung open (to simulate a lose breadboard connection, bad soldering joint etc...) now based upon my understanding if there is no ground connection, the voltage going to the Arduino will be 12V which is a killer, as after looking on the ATMMega328 datasheet it states that
28.1 Absolute Maximum Ratings. Voltage on any pin except RESET with respect to ground => VCC + 0.5
The current will be limited by the 330ohm resistor to only 36mA which I think is a lot, I thought of doubling the resistors values to 330000 and 220000 by that the current will be limited to only 36uA. Again based upon my understanding there is still 12V going to the Arduino but wouldn't it directly drop if the ground connection was cut off ? That's why I ask what is the maximum input power to an Arduino?