Like the title says, I want to take in the synchronised data from two NXP breakout boards and two Ueye 1220LE cameras, and use VIO to fuse their data and get positions for both setups.

A lot of people have suggested running things like SLAM, which is similar to VIO, on something stronger than an Arduino, some specifically suggested using a version of a Raspberry Pi.

Now, I know that Raspberry Pis are stronger than an ESP32, but ESP32s are stronger than Arduinos, and since Pis are more expensive than an ESP32s and I need WiFi capabilities, before I buy a Pi, I was wondering if it would be possible to perform this on my dual-core ESP32.

And if the Pi isn't overkill and I needed all the processing power I could get, what version should I use? The Zero? The 3.0? The 4.0? Do let me know.

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I haven't worked with the ESP-32, but it seems to me you're quibbling over pennies. Pis are cheap and very powerful. They run Linux, so there are tons of open source libraries available for them. You could install OpenCV, for example, and do computer vision quite readily.

I'd recommend at least a PI 3.

If you used an ESP-32 based system, would you run it as an Android device? The Arduino "OS" (And that the term OS is quite a stretch) is really just a setup function and a run loop. You should use a device with a real OS, including a file system, etc.

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