I want to compile a sketch on Arduino Uno, while Arduino is running and not connected to anything else, and then run the compiled sketch automatically.
Is this feasible?
Arduino Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for developers of open-source hardware and software that is compatible with Arduino. It only takes a minute to sign up.Sign up to join this community
No, not feasable, not possible.
The Arduino runs machine code and it does not have enough space or computation power for a compiler (also there is simply no version of the avr C++ compiler for the AVR platform, for obvious reasons). Also it is internally hardwired to run code from the flash memory. You cannot execute code from RAM. The Arduino is a microcontroller, not a computer. (Here I mean computer as something like: Has a microprocessor to execute code from RAM; has an OS; has huge amount of resources in relation to the average microcontroller)
Also: "not connected to anything else" --> Then how would you interact with the Arduino, writing the code, triggering compilation?
If this is about the cable connection, you can implement programming over bluetooth through the HC-05 module (google for it, there should be plenty of tutorials out there). Or go away from the Arduino and change to an ESP, so that you can do Over The Air (OTA) updates over wifi.
Or you could change to a minicomputer like the Raspberry Pi Zero, which is just a little bigger than the Arduino Nano and smaller than the Uno. (Though that hardly depends on the goal, what you are trying to achieve. Microcontrollers are sometimes better used for specific tasks in contrast to minicomputers)