so I was planning on creating a mini PC out of basic ICs and 8-bit microcontrollers such as ATTinys and/or PICs and I have several questions regarding those:

  1. Can you add external RAM, say with SRAM, DRAM chips, so the microcontroller can handle larger programs? (ones requiring more memory to be executed). I've seen an excellent discussion here: External Flash Memory for ATtiny85, which exclaims that I can't do that with AVRs (but why exactly is that? What about PICs, or any 8-bit uCs for that matter).
  2. Can you add external memory, like flash or EEPROM, so that the microcontroller can store some files (sort of a hard drive (but more like an SSD I guess).
  3. Also, how would you go around connecting memory chips together to get more memory out of them? Would there be a difference with memory chips like serial flash and parallel flash?
  4. Can you use them to output and create basic audio & output HDMI? (or communicate with external ICs to do that task)
  5. Can you somehow connect say 2 8-bit ATTinys to get a pseudo 16-bit microcontroller? Would that mean they could process more data at the same time?

Thanks, some guy on the internet.

  • Why do you want to do that, simply for the sake of it? There are several extremely low-cost 64-bit computers around incl Raspberry Pi. P.S. the question is not about Arduino, voting off topic.
    – MichaelT
    Commented Mar 28, 2020 at 5:06
  • You’re much better off with a general purpose microprocessor or a single board computer. AVRs and PIC are great and versatile devices but simply not the best suitable for what you describe.
    – StarCat
    Commented Mar 28, 2020 at 7:15
  • I know what you're getting at, I would be better off with anything else, but I just wanted to use these uCs as a proof of concept that they can be converted into a "usable computer". Commented Mar 28, 2020 at 11:43
  • I’m voting to close this question because it should be migrated to electronics.stackexchange.com Commented Apr 18, 2020 at 9:03
  • Dmitry Grinberg built an ARM emulator on an AVR microcontroller, then booted Linux on the emulated ARM. Emulation lifts some of the limitations of the microcontroller, like the inability to execute instructions from RAM. Commented Feb 15, 2022 at 18:10

2 Answers 2

  1. Yes, you can connect external RAM chips through the typical interfaces (mainly SPI or I2C). But you cannot execute code from it. The microcontroller is an IC, meaning Integrated Circuit. It is hard wired internally to execute from internal flash. You cannot change that. That is valid for most microcontrollers, that executes from internal flash (which is somewhat a definition of a microcontroller). A processor - in contrast- like in a computer, is build to execute code from elsewhere. Note: Some microcontrollers have the ability to execute from external flash. The ESP boards are a good example for this, because they already use an external flash chip, which is soldered onto the board. You can extent the available flash over the SPI flash pins (the SPI bus, where the flash is connected); though this is not really a topic for beginners. You might wanna look into that.

    If your code, that you want to store externally, isn't that complex, you could save the code there as an own (most likely binary) data format and write code for the microcontroller, that takes that data and executes corresponding functions. So basically an interpreter. Though on the small microcontrollers only code for rather small functionality will fit.

  2. Yes, you can add external storage. Which storage depends on many factors. You can by external flash or EEPROM chips, just like external RAM chips. Common storage devices for microcontrollers are SD cards, because they can easily interfaces via SPI. You can even have a file system there (though the size is somewhat limited by the available RAM of your microcontroller, because it needs to load the file table). Maybe you can even connect an SSD, but you will have to look, if you can set up the corresponding interface for it. A microcontroller does not have SATA interfaces or similar. And adding extra chips for these leaves you fastly with interfacing chips, that are way more capable as the main chip itself (see Wifi and the ESPs: You could add Wifi to an Arduino Uno project with it, but the ESP is way more capable, than the Uno). Then you would need to ask yourself: Is this really a good idea?

  3. I think most memory chips (whichever kind) are not daisy chainable. Mostly they use a Single-Master-Multiple-Slaves interface like SPI. You could connect multiple memory chips to the SPI bus and communicate sequentially with them. The difference between parallel and serial flash chips is their communication interface. Serial can be something like SPI. Parallel communication will send multiple bits at once over the corresponding amount of wires (mostly 8, means 1 byte). Here you need the corresponding number of free pins on your microcontroller. Though parallel interfacing is often not advisable. Especially the small microcontrollers are too slow, to profit from the faster interface. And instead of using at least 9 pins, you could also use 3 for SPI and get the same transmission speed in the end.

  4. Yes, they can. Though it really depends on the used microcontroller and the project topology. When using something like the DFmini player, any microcontroller can play audio (from files on a micro SD card in the player). When the microcontroller should play sounds itself, you can get very different results, depending on the chip capabilities. An ESP32 for example has a dedicated I2S interface, which is build for transmitting sound to an output device.

    About video: AVR based microcontrollers (or similar PICs) cannot really handle video. For example: The most, that you can get out of an Arduino Uno (Atmega328p) is a very very limited VGA signal (very small resolution, only a few colors). HDMI is out of range for any of them. Surely you would want to draw on the screen, that is connected to the HDMI interface, to build up a visual interface. I think, that is just not possible with such small microcontrollers. They are not meant for this. Though you might find some very specialized chip, that you could use in such a way. If, that chip would be way more expensive as buying multiple Raspberry Pis. But if you are willig to compromise you may find a smaller sized display (like a few inches) with a connected controller, that you can control via the Arduino. But still you will have very low refresh rate, so no moving images, more like still images.

  5. No, just as 2 32-bit computers do not make 1 64-bit computer. That is just not, how everything works. Each microcontroller can still only process 8 bit at a time out of it's own memory. Depending on the task, you may try to give them different tasks. That would give you more computation power in theory, but it's not the same as a 16-bit controller.

I assume, that you are doing this for fun or for the grind, so I will not say, that you should buy a Raspberry Pi. Though I think, you might look into the wrong way. You cannot make a truck out of parts for a mini, though many of the components work in a similar way. To get all the difficult functionality (audio, video, big storage, ...) out of your self build computer, you need to use computer parts, not microcontroller parts.

If you are happy with much less capabilities, many people in the past have build their own computers out of more basic parts as microcontrollers (down to the big range of logic gates). Microcontrollers live in the world between computers and basic logic components. They are too integrated for extending their capabilities much.


Yes you can, and even execute code from it on PIC18 and PIC17 microcontrollers up to 2MB if external program memory can be added but most variants lac the external program memory interface. For example the pic18f8x8x you can even implement a memory bank system to address much more than 2MB like PCs did in the early times of the x86 called XMEM extended memory.

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