Does the MB-102 can handle Arduino Uno, SIM900 and 3 other modules that requires 5v?
You mean because the current requirements? The answer is yes and no. No, because the needed current must not flow through the Arduino. The SIM900 draws up to 2A, that current would fry the protection diode/voltage regulator on the Arduino (though you may get away with a bit less than that by using a big capacitor to accommodate current spikes). Depending on the version of the Uno, it can provide 200mA or 1A (in case of rev3)(including what is needed for the Uno to operate). You need to provide the 5V of these modules from outside of the Arduino, via an extra voltage regulator, which can handle the big current.
does 9v battery is enough?
If you mean the standard 9V block battery, then no, never. These batteries are meant for low power applications and are almost never a good choice for an Arduino project (unless you have really a low power application). You need to use different batteries, for example a series of AA batteries or a LiPo pack (including the needed circuitry for such a pack).