I have a custom Arduino ATMega328 board that generally runs at 5V @ 8MHz (using the Arduino Pro 3.3V 8MHz profile and bootloader). The main reason I'm using this setup is so that I can put the board to sleep when main power is disconnected and it starts being run off of battery power (3V from a coin cell). The 5V and 3V sources are diode OR'ed together and the 5V input is tied to INT0. In code, when it detects that INT0 has fallen low, it initializes sleep mode and everything powers down with the exception of the watchdog timer that keeps a 1Hz cycle to keep an internal count and check it the chip should be woken back up. This works beautifully when 5V power is applied first, then the battery is inserted, then 5V is disconnected. It goes to sleep and when 5V is brought back it wakes up and I can see it hasn't lost count.
However, the problem comes when 3V is applied first. I'm honestly not sure if it's even booting. But what it is supposed to do is boot, check if INT0 (Digital 2) is low and, if so, go right to sleep. By watching the current draw I see that it powers up to a few mA for a couple seconds, then drops to about 0.3mA (still higher than it should be in sleep mode). But when I re-apply 5V, nothing. The power draw goes back up but it is unresponsive (over FTDI serial).
Is there maybe something I'm missing that it can't be booted on 3V... in theory it should run just fine.
Update: I dropped an LED onto D13 and tried the blink sketch. Works fine when starting from 3V or 5V. However, when I run my firmware and start it from 3V, the LED just starts flashing wildly. I have no idea what's causing it since I never even setup D13 as anything in my code. But it makes me thing it's something to do with the bootloader...