I have three files:

  1. main.cpp
  2. RotaryEncoder.h
  3. RotaryEncoder.cpp

Note that the RotaryEncoder class acts as a wrapper to the Encoder library. I am getting the following build report and I haven't been able to find the bug for the past couple days:

Build output from PlatformIO on VS Code

Processing uno (platform: atmelavr; board: uno; framework: arduino)
Verbose mode can be enabled via `-v, --verbose` option
CONFIGURATION: https://docs.platformio.org/page/boards/atmelavr/uno.html
PLATFORM: Atmel AVR 1.15.0 > Arduino Uno
HARDWARE: ATMEGA328P 16MHz, 2KB RAM, 31.50KB Flash
PACKAGES: toolchain-atmelavr 1.50400.190710 (5.4.0), framework-arduinoavr 4.1.2
LDF: Library Dependency Finder
LDF Modes: Finder ~ chain, Compatibility ~ soft
Found 7 compatible libraries
Scanning dependencies...
Dependency Graph
|-- <Encoder>
Building in release mode
Compiling .pio/build/uno/src/main.cpp.o
Linking .pio/build/uno/firmware.elf
/var/folders/t1/fyh283nd1m7dxbrjlkjtf_kc0000gn/T//ccZN56Tq.ltrans0.ltrans.o: In function `main':
<artificial>:(.text.startup+0x2dc): undefined reference to `RotaryEncoder::getCount()'
collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status
*** [.pio/build/uno/firmware.elf] Error 1

Explicit Error

In function 'main': :(.text.startup+0x2dc): undefined reference to 'RotaryEncoder::getCount()'.


#include <Arduino.h>
#include "RotaryEncoder.h"

#define cartEncoderPhaseA 3
#define cartEncoderPhaseB 4
#define pendulumEncoderPhaseA 2
#define pendulumEncoderPhaseB 5

// Initialize encoders
const double ENCODER_PPR = 2400.0;
RotaryEncoder cartEncoder(cartEncoderPhaseA, cartEncoderPhaseB, ENCODER_PPR);
RotaryEncoder pendulumEncoder(pendulumEncoderPhaseA, pendulumEncoderPhaseB, ENCODER_PPR);

void setup()

void loop()
  long cartCount = cartEncoder.getCount();


#pragma once

#include <Encoder.h>

class RotaryEncoder
    Encoder encoder;
    double encoderPPR;
    double angleLowerBound;
    double angleUpperBound;

    double convertEncoderCountToRadians(long encoderCount);
    double normalizeAngle(double angle);

    RotaryEncoder(int phaseA, int phaseB, double encoderPPR);
    long getCount();
    double getRadiansAndOffsetBy(double angleOffset);
    void setAngleLowerAndUpperBounds(double lowerBound, double upperBound);


#include "RotaryEncoder.h"

RotaryEncoder::RotaryEncoder(int phaseA, int phaseB, double encoderPPR) 
: encoder(phaseA, phaseB), encoderPPR(encoderPPR)

inline long RotaryEncoder::getCount()
    return encoder.read();

inline double RotaryEncoder::getRadiansAndOffsetBy(double angleOffset)
    long encoderCount = getCount();
    double angleInRadians = angleOffset + convertEncoderCountToRadians(encoderCount);
    angleInRadians = normalizeAngle(angleInRadians);

    return angleInRadians;

inline double RotaryEncoder::convertEncoderCountToRadians(long encoderCount)
    return ((double)encoderCount / (encoderPPR)) * (2.0 * PI);

inline double RotaryEncoder::normalizeAngle(double angle)
    // Constrain an angle between [-pi, pi). Output is in radians
    // see: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/11498169/dealing-with-angle-wrap-in-c-code

    angle = fmod(angle + PI, 2 * PI);

    if (angle < 0)
        angle += 2 * PI;

    return angle - PI;

inline void RotaryEncoder::setAngleLowerAndUpperBounds(double lowerBound, double upperBound)
    angleLowerBound = lowerBound;
    angleUpperBound = upperBound;
  • Have you tried it without inlines? It's kinda pointless to have inline modifier in cpp file as it's compiled into RotaryEncoder.o and everything else is compiled separately and won't see any inline...
    – KIIV
    Nov 24, 2019 at 20:09
  • @KIIV Thank you so much, that worked. I didn't even think of that being the issue. If you want to post as an answer I will accept it
    – Hunter
    Nov 24, 2019 at 20:11

1 Answer 1


The inline modifier doesn't make a sense for methods definitions in separate cpp file. And obviously it makes the code compilable but methods aren't recognized as methods definitions and also it's not recognized as error (that's kinda weird).

Anyway, if you wan't inline methods, do it directly inside of class definition.

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