When running the board at room temperature (20 C) without any extra cooling mechanisms added, how much can the Arduino Uno be overclocked?
Also, what would I need to change/update to overclock the board?
With no active cooling, most ATmega328P will run at 30MHz but you will need to up the supply voltage to ~6V. I have never done this on an Arduino board, just an ATmega328P.
I provided an external clock from a signal generator.
The only way to achieve a speed faster than 16MHz is to change the crystal/oscillator/clock input for one faster than 16MHz.
As this was just an experiment, I didn't alter f_cpu in boards.txt, so all timers etc. would be incorrect. Baud rates would also be incorrect - the only way to upload code was to change back to 16MHz.