I am making a project that uses an Arduino nano and a sound detector module to power a 1m LED strip. I got the idea from this video and I am not sure how to power it. My LED strip flashes for a split second and turns off, and people say that the usb power source I am using is not enough power. I am worried though that if I use a more powerful power source that it will fry my Arduino. I am very new to this and I have no idea what to do.
WS2812 can draw 60mA when on full white, x 60 LEDs = 3.6A. If you have a 4 to 5A external 5V supply powering all the components, you'd be okay. If you're trying to power the strip from the Nano 5V line thru its regulator, the regulator will overheat and shutdown.
You could use a relay and have a larger power supply that will light up the LED strip on the other side, after the relay gets the signal to turn on.