To convert a PWM signal to a DC voltage it must be filtered with a low pass filter. How can you know which cut-off frequency should be used and how do you calculate the values for the resistor and capacitor belonging to that cut-off frequency. I do know that the cut-off frequency needs to be much higher/lower in comparison to the PWM signal, for example a factor 100 lower/higher.
closed as off-topic by VE7JRO♦, Juraj, sempaiscuba, Greenonline, jose can u c Apr 5 at 15:10
This question appears to be off-topic. The users who voted to close gave this specific reason:
- "This question does not appear to be about Arduino, within the scope defined in the help center." – VE7JRO, Juraj, sempaiscuba, Greenonline, jose can u c
The PWM frequency on the Arduino is about 500Hz by default, so you want your -3dB frequency to be below that. How far below? That's subjective. Lower gives a smoother output but a lower response speed. Since you want DC out then you can afford to go very low, unless you need it to respond to changes in the set point quickly.