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I probably have a misunderstanding one way or another, so this may be a bad question, but whenever I see sketches of projects that are outputting realtime data or in general, I always see the use of buffers.

For example if you were collecting temperature data in realtime from 3 separate sensors, I could understand using a buffer to first collect those 3 samples, storing them in a buffer, and then outputting that buffer over Serial instead of individually at a time.

But for cases where say you're just sampling a single temperature sensor, I would think you wouldn't need or use a buffer since theres no need to organize the data in such way.

Is there a computational advantage of first reading all values, storing them in a buffer, then outputting the buffer to Serial over just printing the values one at a time in a continuous stream? or am I missing something completely?

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    for network, SPI, I2C transfer it is better to collect the data into a buffer, because they have an overhead of transport framing bytes. for Serial? where did you see it? – Juraj Mar 8 '19 at 13:53
  • @Juraj this is a small example forum.arduino.cc/index.php?topic=154348.0, maybe the use of buffers is only for incoming data, where you have to wait for the full transmission to complete before evaluating or doing anything with the data? – Dante Biase Mar 8 '19 at 13:59
  • so yes processing a number digit by digitt is hard. much better is to collect the digits and convert them to a number. – Juraj Mar 8 '19 at 14:04
  • ah I see I was overthinking this. Thanks. – Dante Biase Mar 8 '19 at 14:15
  • Serial already uses an output buffer. – Gerben Mar 8 '19 at 15:21