A high voltage at a pin can damage the microcontroller partially.
The ATtiny microcontrollers can sometimes survive a voltage of 7 V.
The ATmega microcontrollers are damaged by that voltage.
The ATmega2560 is older and even more critical with voltages, it can not work at 16 MHz below 4.5 V and gets easily damaged with voltages above 6 V.
When the microcontroller runs at 5.0 V, a input pin can have -0.5 V to +5.5 V.
When the microcontroller gets damaged, it can be damaged partially. It is impossible to determine which parts of the chip are still okay. Therefor a partially damaged microcontroller should not be used anymore.
A simple solution is a protection resistor in the signal path to the analog input.
simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab
According to application note AVR182, it is allowed to push 1 mA into a pin or pull 1 mA from a pin for the ATmega microcontrollers. That current flows via the internal ESD diodes to VCC or from GND.
With a protection resistor of 4k7 before an input, the microcontroller is protected up to: 1mA * 4k7 + 5.5V = 10.2 V.
The internal ESD diodes can have more than 1 mA, but the maximum is unspecified. It is also dangerous when for example the ATmega is put into sleep mode. Then the 1 mA can lift the VCC voltage and still damage the ATmega microcontroller.
When a voltage divider is used (two resistors, R1 and R2) and the internal reference is used, then the voltage divider can be designed to be protected against very high voltages. For example with a ATmega2560, internal reference of 2.56V, R1=47k, R2=10k. This can measure up to 14.6 V and be protected up to 78 V.