Me and my classmates are trying to make an arduino base project where we will be using sensors, GSM, and Data logger shield. We want the arduino to store the data collected and at the same time send a message to the user if significant data are collected.My is question is above.
It depends, but high likely yes.
The sensors, GSM and Data Logger may use the I2C, SPI, analog pins or UART (last not likely).
For I2C, the Arduino can handle many of such devices, because it is part of the protocol.
For SPI it is similar, although some cheap SD card reader for Arduino are notorious not being compatible with other SPI devices. And the Arduino has only one SPI port (but can handle many SPI devices, as long as they all are capable to allow other SPI devices).
For analog pins, these are likely only used by sensors, the Arduino has 5. But there are some ways to use more sensors by polling, using multiplexers etc.