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  • I have an Arduino Due that is connected both over native USB to PC and a 12v power supply in the Jack.

  • Mounted on the Arduino I have a custom PCB that drives 3 motor drivers. The Motor drivers are powered via the arduinos VIN Pin with 12v.

As Ive read elsewhere the arduino automatically chooses the 12v powersupply in this case. My question is: If the 3 motor drivers exceed the 1amp that the powersupply can supply, will the arduino encounter errors/shutdown or automatically switch back to USB for power supply?

If so, is there a way I can force the arduino to take the USB 5v even though 12v are connected through the Jack?

Also, how much current can I safely drive through the VIN Pin?

Thanks!

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If the incoming voltage drops below 6.6V the MOSFET will activate for the USB power and that will become available. But it's not perfect.

The MOSFET is always "partially" active - that is, the "body diode" is always available, so if the 5V rail drops below the USB voltage minus the forward voltage of that body diode the USB power will take over regardless of what else is happening. That 5V rail then feeds the 3.3V regulator, and since the ARM chip on the Due is a 3.3V chip, even a dip of a volt or so on the 5V rail should have no effect on the MCU.

So theoretically the chip should keep running fine all the time regardless of what happens with the power.

Is there a way I can force the arduino to take the USB 5v even though 12v are connected through the Jack?

Not really, no. You can remove the 12V from the jack though and just power from USB. Connect the 12V to your motor drivers, and link its ground to the Arduino ground. The motors will use the 12V supply, and the Arduino the 5V supply.

Also, how much current can I safely drive through the VIN Pin?

The diode inline with the barrel jack is rated at a maximum sustained current of 1A. Any more than that and you risk blowing that diode.

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