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[Background] I'm constructing a water bottle rocket which is going to use apogee detection and a mechanism for the parachute release.

Connected to the Uno will be an accelerometer and a servo, now due to the need to minimise the dry mass of the rocket I want to use as few and as light batteries as feasible. Would it be possible to power this setup with 2 AAAs? If not how many would be necessary? Would other types of Arduino such as a micro work on fewer batteries?

Thanks for the help

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    The 8 MHz version of the Arduino Pro Mini, while nominally powered at 3.3 V, should work fine down to 2.5 V according to the ATmega328P datasheet. – Edgar Bonet Apr 7 '18 at 7:46
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    The problem here is not an Arduino-equivalent processor, but powering the servo. Servos for micro/indoor aircraft are available for operation at lower than normal voltages in the 3-4v range. An ATmega will run on that voltage as well. So solve your servo power problem first. – Chris Stratton Apr 7 '18 at 18:37
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I've got a page about power saving.

My first suggestion would be to not use a Uno, which is quite heavy (because of its size) but a smaller Arduino like a Mini. Second, I think you'll find that LiPo batteries are quite light, and come in various sizes (and thus, weights). A single cell will output around 3.7V which is fine for driving an Atmega328P. Possibly you could drop the clock to 8 MHz because of the voltage.

If you don't need it to be "awake" all the time consider using the techniques described in my link above to make it sleep for (say) 4 seconds at a time and then take a measurement.

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    The flight of an amateur rocket doesn't last very long. I wouldn't advice the Arduino to take a nap in mid flight. – Edgar Bonet Apr 7 '18 at 7:35
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    Well in that case any battery that can last the distance would do. :) – Nick Gammon Apr 7 '18 at 9:41

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