1

I am trying to create a clock on an LCD when I upload the code below, all it displays is a very rapidly flashing 0:00 PM. Please help. This is my first time using Millis.

#include <LiquidCrystal.h>   //includes LCD display library in sketch
LiquidCrystal lcd(27,26,25,24,23,22);   //determines pins of the LCD display
int seconds = 0;    //generates integer storing seconds
int minutes = 0;    //generates integer storing and showing minutes
int hours = 12;      //generates integer storing hours in 24 hour mode
int displayHours;      //generates integer displaying hours in 12 hour mode
unsigned long previousMillis = 0;   //creates a variable to store the amount of milliseconds since last update
const long interval = 1000;    //generates integer to find 1 second interval


void setup()
{
  lcd.begin(16,2);  //determines size of the LCD display
}

void loop()   //runs code repeatedly
{
  updateSeconds();   //runs the updateSeconds function
  clockShown();   //runs the clockShown function
  clockConversion();    //runs the clockConversion function
}


void updateSeconds()   //check to see if it's time to update the seconds integer
{
  unsigned long currentMillis = millis();  //generates the number of milliseconds program has been running
  if (currentMillis - previousMillis >= interval) 
    {
      previousMillis = currentMillis; //updates the last time seconds was updated
      seconds = seconds ++;   //adds a second to the counter
   }
}


void clockShown()   //displays the time on an LCD display
{
  lcd.clear();   //resets screen on LCD
  lcd.setCursor(0,0);    //sets the place to start writing at the top left corner of the LCD
  lcd.print(displayHours);  //displays hours
  lcd.print(":");   //displays colon
  if(minutes <= 9)  //if the minute is 1 digit
  {
    lcd.print("0"); //displays 0
  }
  lcd.print(minutes);  //displays minutes
  if(hours < 12)lcd.print(" AM");  //displays AM in the morning
  if(hours >= 12)lcd.print(" PM");   //displays PM at night
}

void clockConversion()  //runs math to convert seconds minutes and hours
{
  if(seconds == 60) //when seconds is 60
  { 
    seconds = 0;  //set seconds back to 0
    minutes = minutes ++;  //and add a minute
  } 
  if(minutes == 60) //when minutes is 60
  { 
    minutes = 0; //set minutes back to 0
    displayHours = displayHours ++; //and add an hour
    hours = hours ++; //and keep track of AM PM
  } 
  if(displayHours == 13)  //if the hour being displayed is 13
  { 
    displayHours = 1; //make it 1 instead
  } 
}
2

Problem 1

seconds = seconds ++;   //adds a second to the counter

This command grabs the value of seconds, increments the value of seconds, and then assigns the previously grabbed value to seconds. Or rather, it does nothing to change the value of seconds.

This mistake is repeated for minutes, hours, and displayHours in the clockConversion() function.

Instead

seconds++;

That was the main problem. The other problems described below are just for efficiency.

Problem 2

void loop()   //runs code repeatedly
{
  updateSeconds();   //runs the updateSeconds function
  clockShown();   //runs the clockShown function
  clockConversion();    //runs the clockConversion function
}

Why would you display the clock with clockShown() before you run clockConversion() to nice-up the minute and hour carry-over? Since you are running both clockShown() and clockConversion() at a high frequency, it doesn't matter much, but from a program flow point of view, I think it makes more sense to do the conversion before you display the values.

Problem 3

You are only updating seconds every 1000 milliseconds, using the millis() function. This is good.

However, nothing at all changes during the 1000 milliseconds between the incrementing of seconds. Why not pull the millis() parts into loop() and call all 3 functions only once per second?

void loop()   //runs code repeatedly
{
  unsigned long currentMillis = millis();  //generates the number of milliseconds program has been running
  if (currentMillis - previousMillis >= waittime) 
  {
    previousMillis = currentMillis; //updates the last time seconds was updated

    updateSeconds();   //runs the updateSeconds function
    clockConversion();    //runs the clockConversion function
    clockShown();   //runs the clockShown function
  }
}

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