Is there an similar function in AVR-libc/Arduino C++ to mmap()? I'm looking for a way to place machine code in memory at runtime and make it executable.

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First, mmap() makes almost no sense on an AVR, as there's no memory management unit or concept of process memory to configure. Some related concepts like sbrk() are occasionally implemented in a minimalist fashion to let library functions designed for larger computers work, but they typically only update a tracking variable or fail. For things that are physically realizable you can write your own mmap() if you really want, either allowing (assigning) or disallowing a region, and even if you really want automatically copying part of a file off an SD card or whatever...

But more importantly, your actual goal is entirely unachievable, as the AVR is a strict Harvard Architecture which can only execute instructions from flash, never from RAM.

If you want to execute from RAM, try one of the various small ARM Cortex M0/M4/M3 platforms (many of which have Arduino ports), or even consider a larger Embedded Linux system, which will not necessarily be any more expensive than an Arduino.

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