You have a conceptual error. You don't need n wires to transmite n bits of information. If you use a serial protocol, one wire or two is enough to transmit information of any size: you just send one bit after another.
Just think: you are downloading sketchs in your Arduino thru a cable with only 4 wires ...
Most sensors (and modules) for Arduino use I2C or SPI to transmit commands/information in digital format. You can learn a lot in this tutorial that covers I2C, SPI and USB.
A quick search on Aliexpress show me this APDS-9960 sensor
The sensor provide ambient light and color measurement, proximity detection and non-contact gesture detection. The APDS-9960 has built in UV and IR blocking filters, four separate diodes sensitive to different directions, and an I2C compatible interface.
Pins: VL (optional power to IR LED), GND (Ground), VCC (power to APDS-9960 sensor), SDA (I2C data), SCL (I2C clock), and INT (interrupt). Each APDS-9960 also has a detection range of 4 to 8 inches (10 to 20 cm).
It works with 3.3V.