I believe I can supply the Arduino with power in three different ways:
- Use USB. The design trusts the 5V to be regulated, and does not regulate it in any way.
- Use a regulated power source, trusted to be 5V, and connect it to GND and 5V.
- Connect an unregulated power source, eg a battery, to GND and VIN. This should be above 6.2V (since the dropout voltage is 1.2V) and preferably between 9V and 12V. There is a built-in regulator that will supply the Arduino with exactly 5V.
But can I use any of those pins to power other components. E.g. if the Arduino is powered with USB, can I use the 5V pin to power a diode? I thought I could, but the voltage is 4.70V, while the USB is 5.07V. The VIN is 4.26V btw.
Are the 5V and VIN only for powering the Arduino?