So I am trying to make a digital keyboard on webpage, that when one of the keys are clicked it creates sounds on the Arduino board. I want to do this without an ethernet shield. I am a beginner so I am not sure how to proceed. I'm not even sure what type of code it needs to work. I just know that I need Processing sketch to act as a go between for the webpage and the Arduino.

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    The only communication you have is serial. You need to write some program that will link the serial on your computer to the website somehow. How you do that is up to you, and not something we can really help with. – Majenko Aug 29 '17 at 13:25
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    You need to start with smaller less ambitious projects...learn at least basic stuff about the hardware you want to work with and the programming language you'll use to make the former do your bidding. There are lots of free tutorials out there. Youtube is not a bad place to start looking. – TisteAndii Aug 29 '17 at 22:45

You are asking for something that sounds simple, but it's far from simple.

The security of modern web browsers is based on simple premise. Websites cannot in any way interact with the system of the user. Unless you are a hacker ant you are using an exploit you cannot make a website that will send data to the PC it's opened upon, or even read anything (like files and folders from hard drive) except the things that browser tells it (like what fonts are installed)

You can write a browser plugin that will break that rule, but it's a bad practice to deliberately make suck an awful backdoor.

Websites can only communicate with the server they were opened from. You can use AJAX made easy by a javascript library like jQuery. This means that You will have to write your own plugin to any of the existing http servers like apache (for php), or create your own server using for example flask framework (for python) and use it to communicate through serial protocol with the hardware.

The arduino code will be the simplest task in your project.

The code should read from serial a string value. Since You can only press one key at the time with a mouse you just need to read a value of key that was pressed like "12". Then play correct sound using for example a buzzer

The ethernet shield can help only by allowing you to install server on the hardware itself, connecting it to your wifi and forwarding it outside to be accessible by everyone on the web. For that I suggest using raspberryPi, omega2 or even esp8266 and not an arduino.

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