The Arduino Uno uses the ATmega328P microcontroller. That microcontroller is able to write the EEPROM 100,000 times. As far as I know, that is 100,000 times per EEPROM location.
Suppose you want to run it for 10 years, then 10 years / 100k is about 1 hour. That means you can write to EEPROM every hour.
Storing settings is no problem. There is even a EEPROM.update function that only writes the data when the data has changed.
If you want to store the latest settings every second, then you need to look for something else.
Important note: When storing settings (in EEPROM or SD memory card) the Arduino could be powered off while it is busy writing. Those settings will not be valid. Therefor you might have to add a checksum, store a copy of the settings, and keep default settings in the code in case both the settings and its copy are not valid.