There are several parts to this. Getting the data from the sensor to the computer, inserting it into a database, then displaying it.
A device to read the sensor and send the value(Arduino, esp8266, etc.)
A medium to send the data (wifi, network, Bluetooth, usb)
A program to read the data and insert it into the database (webpage, program, script)
A database to store the data (MySQL, MSSQL, etc.)
A website to display the data (php, .NET, java)
A webserver to host the website (IIS, Apache)
I have done this with:
DHT11 - temp / humidity sensor
ESP8266 - WiFi module to read the sensor and send data over wifi
Laptop running Ubuntu, Apache, and MySQL hosting a PHP website. There was a page used to insert data and a couple pages to read data.
To design this yourself, you have to take it one step at a time to design it.
This is about as specific as I can get with the information given. If you have further questions on more specific parts of this, I would be glad to help.