All the guides I've found suggest to use an external PSU to power an RGB matrix like this.
However I know it is possible to blink the LEDs at high rates (eg. 2ms) and still give the impression to the eyes they are fully on. I've verified this myself on a small 4x4 matrix, but I am not sure if the same can be done with these bigger matrices.
In my case I could tolerate reduced brightness and color space, but I'd like to power the matrix with the Arduino's 5V pin directly.