I'm doing research into if the Arduino Uno has enough power pin slots to power multiple components, and I'm unsure if it's possible to convert some of the pins from the Digital and Analogue sections to be power/ground. Anyone know>
Only for very light loads (a few mA).
But why would you want to? The number of power pins doesn't dictate the number of devices you can power. Power pins can have as many things connected to one pin as you like. As long as you stay within the board's total power budget you are fine.
Yes, for most modules that use modest power, it can be handy to treat modules as shields, in cases where pins can align. You just set each pin on the common 4-pin module connector as needed and plug them in. I've done this several times with DHT22 modules, and it's fun "plug and play"ing on such a low-level.
With an UNO, you get a generous 40ma per output, though I would use a real power rail for anything over 100mw or so.
To make a pin act as VCC:
pinMode(pin, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(pin, HIGH);
To make a pin act as ground:
pinMode(pin, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(pin, LOW);
the other advantage to this is being able to switch the module on/off with
LOW) to save power or reset flaky sensors.