What the differences between Arduino language and standard C used for MCU programming (like AVR).I heard Arduino language is C.What happen if i use Arduino language with bare-bones AVR chips.Or with PIC mcu.Will it work? And, if i use just use AVR chip without arduino, will it work with sensor that designed for Arduino (lets say HC-SR04 ultrasonic sensor).And will sensor designed for arduino work with PIC mcu or other non AVR mcu? I'm a beginner mcu programmer and currenly learning Arduino.Which is good starting point learning Arduino first or just go straight to MCU programming (without Arduino, just bare bones chip)? Thank you
There's no "Arduino language", it is C++ with some pre-written libraries to provide an abstraction layer on top of the hardware. You cannot use that library on other microcontrollers because it was designed for the specific MCU (AVR).
Pretty much all microcontrollers on the market have compiler support for the C language, which is similar to C++. There is also often C++ compilers available. But overall, C is by far the most popular language to use when programming embedded systems, with the best tool support.
I would probably avoid spending too much time learning about the Arduino library, since that is not useful knowledge for other platforms. Focus on learning C and study at least one assembler (to grasp what happens underneath the hood of C).