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I'm trying to flash the repetier Firmware to my Prusa i3 3D Printer, which uses Melzi 2.0 board. I uploaded it successfully 2 days ago with same settings but now is failing always.

@avrdude -p m1284p -b57600 -c arduino -P COM%x% -e -U flash:w:%filename%.hex
avrdude: AVR device initialized and ready to accept instructions
Reading | ################################################## | 100% 0.02s
avrdude: Device signature = 0x1e9705 (probably m1284p)
avrdude: erasing chip
avrdude: reading input file "newa.hex"
avrdude: input file newa.hex auto detected as Intel Hex
avrdude: writing flash (114266 bytes):
Writing |                                                    | 0% 0.00s
avrdude: stk500_paged_write(): (a) protocol error, expect=0x14, resp=0x64 
avrdude: stk500_recv(): programmer is not responding

How do I solve this problem?

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The Electronics Stackexchange question avrdude error - stk500_paged_write() protocol error has answers that suggest three different tactics for protocol errors:

• Upgrade the Arduino IDE from 1.00 to 1.05, or install "AVR-GCC Toolchain" via Homebrew;
• Disconnect everything from TX / RX (Arduino digital pins 0 and 1);
• Use shorter or different USB cables, hooked to a USB port on computer instead of on a hub

I've seen dozens of answers here on arduino.stackexchange with such suggestions, as well as webpages elsewhere with ideas like those in an answer to AVRDUDE Error (Arduino Leonardo).

You could go through this list of programmer-is-not-responding arduino.stackexchange questions, and report back on what works and what doesn't:

"avrdude: stk500_getsync(): not in sync: resp=0x00," aka Some Dude Named Avr Won't Let Me Upload My Program,
How do I resolve "avrdude: stk500_recv(): programmer is not responding"?,
avrdude: stk500_recv(): programmer is not responding after serial,
avrdude: stk500_recv(): programmer is not responding + avrdude: stk500_getsync() attempt 10 of 10: not in sync: resp=0x47,
avrdude: stk500_rcv :programmer is not responding,
Arduino Nano Update failure - avrdude: stk500_recv(): programmer is not responding,
avrdude: stk500_getsync(): not in sync: resp=0x00,
Arduino Uno cannot upload any sketch: avrdude: stk500_recv(): programmer is not responding,
"avrdude: stk500_recv(): programmer is not responding" when uploading sketch,
Arduino not working / not uploading [duplicate],
Problems uploading sketch to Arduino Due,
FTDI stdk 500k not responding,
Arduino Prototype on Breadboard: "avrdude: stk500_recv(): programmer is not responding",
Arduino Nano - programmer is not responding,
How do I resolve "avrdude: stk500_recv(): programmer is not responding"?,
Arduino not in sync unique error,
Arduino nano stopped working,
Not in sync: resp=0x00,
How to troubleshoot the Arduino Mini and Arduino usb2serial?,
Atmega328P-PU: Programmer is not responding,

Note, click the “see more linked questions…” link in the sidebar to get a nice webpage with the above list and the opening lines of each question.

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