I'm not familiar with Lego Mindstorm, but I think I understand what you want and I am certain there is a way to do it, but I don't think it will be easy or even practical and I can't tell you exactly how to do it.
I'm pretty certain there will be a way to load a 'module' into memory and then make the program call that address. I haven't got a clue how you would do it though, sorry. GCC doesn't have a concept of DLLs like window does, but it does have shared libraries. Or you might look at just reading a block of memory in.
Other approaches might be to have all the 'programs' as functions within you main program and call them depending on the user's input. You can only do this if the 'programs' are small enough.
If you can refactor your 'programs' to extract the common code into functions and then have a data file (which could be read at runtime) that called the functions for each of your programming. Basically invent your own higher level programming language. This wouldn't work if your code was very different and you could factor it down to a small enough number of functions.
Would it be possible to just have a number of hex files (compiled programs?) all of which have the common screen/button handler in and then have the special code for the appropriate program. These could all be stored on an SD card and then loaded into memory by a second Arduino (sounds plausible to me, I'm sure someone will tell me whats wrong with that idea.)
An alternative based on the inverse of the above solution would be to have one Arduino to control the screen/buttons and it programs a second Arduino with the specialist code that is connected to the rest of your kit.