Is it possible to use the analog output pin with some circuit to generate a 0 to 15V analog output?
The Arduino cannot directly produce anything more than 5V.
You can use PWM and a Low-Pass Filter to produce an analog waveform between 0 and 5V, which you can then amplify using a suitable non-inverting buffer with 3x gain (op-amp), which will boost the voltage to 15V. Whether that is suitable for your needs, though, since the current will generally be quite low (most op-amps have a high output impedance) is unknown.
If you want a cleaner waveform you can attach or create a DAC which produces discrete output voltages (again between 0 and 5V) which you then amplify similarly.
R3 and C1 form the low-pass filter and should be sized according to the frequency ranges you want to filter and keep. Note that many op-amps that can cope with the higher voltages you need aren't rail-to-rail which means you will have to use a higher power supply voltage than you want to output to leave some headroom. Similarly the 0V will be clipped and will never go below a certain voltage. If you want to get right down to 0V you will need a negative power supply to feed the V- supply of the op-amp (which is currently connected to ground in this schematic). That would allow the output to drop right down to 0V.