I need turn off and turn on component from an Arduino UNO.
How can I do that? I am thinking about some transistor (IRF 530N) but I am not sure about it.
Please give me a beginner advice how to implement such a switch.
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A relay, as pictured, is a good choice. It provides complete galvanic isolation and switches the power properly.
Another option is to use a MOSFET that can handle enough current (an N-channel switching the ground as a low side switch, or a P-channel switching the power which is itself switched by an N-channel, as a high side switch).
I've just bought a few STP16NF06L fets for this very purpose, N channel MOSFET.
The key part of that part number is the L at the end. This indicates low (or Logic) gate threshold, which means it will switch on fully at 5v gate drive, unlike most fets which are sort of conducting at 5v but need 10v to reach their specification (like an IRF530N).
The 16 and the 06 are 16 amps and 60 volts respectively.
You can get about 25 of them for the same price as a UNO, depending on supplier, in the UK here for instance