The 5V pin is either supplied by the USB port, which has a limit of 500mA (imposed by a resettable fuse) if directly connected to the computer or a powered hub (or 100mA in an unpowered hub), or the on-board regulator (NCP1117ST50T3G), which is 1A, when powered externally.
The 3.3V pin is regulated using an LP2985-33DBVR which has a current limit of 150mA (the specifications on the website say 50mA. This is wrong. I think it is a left-over from the old Uno boards with FTDI chips where the 3.3V was fed directly by the internal 3.3V regulator of the FTDI chip and thus limited to 50mA).
Yes, the 5V pin has more than enough current to run an LM741 op-amp.