To expand on Doug's answer:
There are two types of IR receiver. The two-pin one you have is basically a photodiode with infra-red filter. When infra-red light hits it the transistor gets biased and turns on. This is the most basic type you can get and is very hard to work with for anything other than simple on-off signals.
The second type is the IR receiver module. This contains a photodiode as above, but also contains extra circuitry. It receives IR light on the photodiode and filters it through a band-pass filter. A remote control sends a sequence of pulses of light which itself is further made up of high frequency pulses (36KHz square wave, for example). It's this high frequency pulsing that is allowed through the band-pass filter. The internal circuitry then turns these pulses of high frequency square waves into pulses of ON or OFF signals by low-pass filtering them to remove the high frequency component.
This latter type of receiver is far easier to work with for sending of data or commands from (eg) a remote control. But it can't detect a steady-state IR signal. The modulation and filtering means that a much weaker signal can be extracted from the background IR light meaning much greater distances can be achieved using much weaker transmission LEDs.
So while it is possible to use the former type with an Arduino you have to realise that the software required to do all the filtering and detection, as well as the extra hardware required to interface it, makes them considerably harder to use. That is why almost everyone uses the three-pin versions that do all that for you.
One thing to note with the three-pin versions: they have to match the carrier frequency of the transmitter. So a 36KHz transmitter has to be paired with a 36KHz receiver. Otherwise it won't be able to detect the signal. Just like a radio - it has to be tuned to the right band.