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First of all, let me be clear: I'm a total noob, I have close to zero programming experience and I know i'm out of my league, but I want to learn and understand. Here's the issue. The following code has been made to control heat pads using 4 relays that turn off/on depending on the temperature that 4 lm35 Temp sensors pick up. Because these sensors can be jumpy sometimes, I want to get the average temperature from, let's say, 50 readings, and make the code check THAT data instead of the raw temp reading. I have the code for the arduino (I wrote some code and guys over other forums took it and modified it to make it shorter (and that kind of lost me, but the code works) and then I searched smoothing data and got a piece of code that does exactly what I want: make an array, calculate the average temp, and keep deleting and adding new data.

I tried to join both codes together and I got all different kind of errors, lol So here I am.

The Code that works without average data is this one:

const byte tempPin[] = {A1, A2, A3, A4};
const byte relayPin[] = {6, 7, 8, 9};

// hysteresis = upperLimit - lowerLimit
const byte lowerLimit = 24;
const byte upperLimit = 31;

float tempC[4];
word reading[4];



word printInterval = 1000; // 1 second
unsigned long printCheck = 0, lastPrintTime = 0;

void setup()
{
  analogReference(INTERNAL);
  Serial.begin(115200);
  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
    pinMode(relayPin[i], INPUT_PULLUP);
    pinMode(relayPin[i], OUTPUT); // defaults HIGH, relay OFF
  }
}

void loop()
{
  // readings and control
  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
    reading[i] = analogRead(tempPin[i]);
    tempC[i] = reading[i] / 9.31;


    if (tempC[i] < lowerLimit) {
      digitalWrite(relayPin[i], LOW);   //relay OFF
    }
    else if (tempC[i] > upperLimit) {
      digitalWrite(relayPin[i], HIGH);  // relay ON
    }
  }
  printCheck = millis() - lastPrintTime;
  if (printCheck >= printInterval) {
    for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
      Serial.print("tempC");
      Serial.print(i + 1);
      Serial.print(" ");
      Serial.println(tempC[i]);
    }
    Serial.println();
    lastPrintTime = millis(); // reset print timer
  }
}

The average code I got from Arduino Learning center is this one:

/*

  Smoothing

  Reads repeatedly from an analog input, calculating a running average
  and printing it to the computer.  Keeps ten readings in an array and
  continually averages them.

  The circuit:
    * Analog sensor (potentiometer will do) attached to analog input 0

  Created 22 April 2007
  By David A. Mellis  <dam@mellis.org>
  modified 9 Apr 2012
  by Tom Igoe
  http://www.arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/Smoothing

  This example code is in the public domain.


*/


// Define the number of samples to keep track of.  The higher the number,
// the more the readings will be smoothed, but the slower the output will
// respond to the input.  Using a constant rather than a normal variable lets
// use this value to determine the size of the readings array.
const int numReadings = 10;

int readings[numReadings];      // the readings from the analog input
int readIndex = 0;              // the index of the current reading
int total = 0;                  // the running total
int average = 0;                // the average

int inputPin = A0;

void setup() {
  // initialize serial communication with computer:
  Serial.begin(9600);
  // initialize all the readings to 0:
  for (int thisReading = 0; thisReading < numReadings; thisReading++) {
    readings[thisReading] = 0;
  }
}

void loop() {
  // subtract the last reading:
  total = total - readings[readIndex];
  // read from the sensor:
  readings[readIndex] = analogRead(inputPin);
  // add the reading to the total:
  total = total + readings[readIndex];
  // advance to the next position in the array:
  readIndex = readIndex + 1;

  // if we're at the end of the array...
  if (readIndex >= numReadings) {
    // ...wrap around to the beginning:
    readIndex = 0;
  }

  // calculate the average:
  average = total / numReadings;
  // send it to the computer as ASCII digits
  Serial.println(average);
  delay(1);        // delay in between reads for stability
}

The monster I created joining both codes is this one:

const byte tempPin[] = {A1, A2, A3, A4};
const byte relayPin[] = {6, 7, 8, 9};

// hysteresis = upperLimit - lowerLimit
const byte lowerLimit = 24;
const byte upperLimit = 31;

float tempC[4];
word reading[4];

const int numReadings = 50;
int readings[numReadings];
int readIndex = 0;
int total = 0;
float average[4];


word printInterval = 1000; // 1 second
unsigned long printCheck = 0, lastPrintTime = 0;

void setup()
{
  analogReference(INTERNAL);
  Serial.begin(115200);
  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
    pinMode(relayPin[i], INPUT_PULLUP);
    pinMode(relayPin[i], OUTPUT); // defaults HIGH, relay OFF
  }
  for (int thisReading = 0; thisReading < numReadings; thisReading++){
    readings[thisReading] = 0;
  }
}

void loop()
{
  // readings and control
  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
    reading[i] = analogRead(tempPin[i]);
    tempC[i] = reading[i] / 9.31;
    total[i] = total[i] - readings[readIndex];
    readings[readIndex] = tempC[i]
    total[i] = total[i] + readings[readIndex]
    readIndex[i] = readIndex[i] + 1 ;
    if (readIntex[i] >= numReadings) {
      readIndex = 0;
    }
    average[i] = total[i] / numReadings;

    if (average[i] < lowerLimit) {
      digitalWrite(relayPin[i], LOW);   //relay OFF
    }
    else if (average[i] > upperLimit) {
      digitalWrite(relayPin[i], HIGH);  // relay ON
    }
  }
  printCheck = millis() - lastPrintTime;
  if (printCheck >= printInterval) {
    for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
      Serial.print("tempC");
      Serial.print(i + 1);
      Serial.print(" ");
      Serial.println(tempC[i]);
    }
    Serial.println();
    lastPrintTime = millis(); // reset print timer
  }
}

These are the errors that I got:

Arduino: 1.6.8 (Windows 7), Board: "Arduino/Genuino Uno"

\temprelayfinal2.ino: In function 'void loop()':

temprelayfinal2:40: error: invalid types 'int[int]' for array subscript

     total[i] = total[i] - readings[readIndex];

            ^

temprelayfinal2:40: error: invalid types 'int[int]' for array subscript

     total[i] = total[i] - readings[readIndex];

                       ^

temprelayfinal2:42: error: expected ';' before 'total'

     total[i] = total[i] + readings[readIndex]

     ^

temprelayfinal2:44: error: 'readIntex' was not declared in this scope

     if (readIntex[i] >= numReadings) {

         ^

temprelayfinal2:47: error: invalid types 'int[int]' for array subscript

     average[i] = total[i] / numReadings;

                         ^

exit status 1
invalid types 'int[int]' for array subscript

This report would have more information with
"Show verbose output during compilation"
option enabled in File -> Preferences.
  • 2
    I typically use something like avgTemp = (9*avgTemp + 1*reading)/10;. – Gerben Jun 8 '16 at 17:59
  • It looks like you might need to handle a two-dimensional readings[4][50] array to keep 50 samples of 4 different measurements. Gerben's, solution is an "Exponentially Weighted Moving Average" that is an excellent solution with minimum memory and bookkeeping requirements. You remember only the 4 averages, and adjust them a little bit with each new reading. For something corresponding to the 50-sample history, you might want a weights like {49/50 ,1/50} – Dave X Jun 8 '16 at 19:14
  • For efficiency reasons, I like to make the time constant a power of two times the sampling period. E.g. avg += (reading - avg) >> 6;, for τ = 64. – Edgar Bonet Jun 8 '16 at 19:42
  • Woah, that's excelent thinking although I don't quite understand some things: Why use Exponentially Weighted Moving Average instead of Simple Moving Average? And I don't get the code Gerben used. Why multiply the var by 9 and add it to 1*reading? – Dante Nahuel Ciai Jun 9 '16 at 4:40
  • Why use Exponentially Weighted Moving Average instead of Simple Moving Average?” Because the former is actually simpler to implement than the latter. It also requires less memory and is faster to compute. “I don't get the code Gerben used.” It's pretty straight forward once you understand the math. – Edgar Bonet Jun 9 '16 at 7:38
1
total[i] = total[i] - readings[readIndex];

total is of type int. That is, it is a scalar integer. You cannot index into it, total[i] doesn't make sense. That is why the compiler is complaining.

  • I see. So, how can I make subdivisions of the var total for each sensor/relay set? – Dante Nahuel Ciai Jun 8 '16 at 17:35
  • You could make total an array (if I understand what you're asking). – uint128_t Jun 8 '16 at 18:16
1

Using the exponential moving average filter suggested by Gerben, things become quite simpler:

const byte tempPin[] = {A1, A2, A3, A4};
const byte relayPin[] = {6, 7, 8, 9};

// hysteresis = upperLimit - lowerLimit
const byte lowerLimit = 24;
const byte upperLimit = 31;

const int numReadings = 64;
const word printInterval = 1000; // 1 second

float tempC[4];
unsigned long lastPrintTime = 0;

void setup()
{
  analogReference(INTERNAL);
  Serial.begin(115200);
  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
    digitalWrite(relayPin[i], HIGH);
    pinMode(relayPin[i], OUTPUT);
  }
}

void loop()
{
  // readings and control
  for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
    float raw_temp = analogRead(tempPin[i]) / 9.31;
    tempC[i] += (raw_temp - tempC[i]) / numReadings;  // filter
    if (tempC[i] < lowerLimit) {
      digitalWrite(relayPin[i], LOW);   //relay OFF
    }
    else if (tempC[i] > upperLimit) {
      digitalWrite(relayPin[i], HIGH);  // relay ON
    }
  }
  if (millis() - lastPrintTime >= printInterval) {
    for (int i = 0; i < 4; i++) {
      Serial.print("tempC");
      Serial.print(i + 1);
      Serial.print(" ");
      Serial.println(tempC[i]);
    }
    Serial.println();
    lastPrintTime = millis(); // reset print timer
  }
}

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