Why Apple home buttons?
Finding out how to get input/output from these things and wiring them in a reliable way may cost you some time (and quite some money).
I don't see how they would have other features than regular buttons.
(You won't get the fingerprint-scanning thing working, I'm afraid.)
It'll be quite a project to do in one month (especially when you're new to Arduino).
If you start out with 80 buttons and stuff, it will probably end up in a mess, and you'll be unable to show your prof anything.
You should however, order the 80 push-buttons (I shouldn't order the Apple ones, if you don't already know how they work) and LED's. Since they might take some shipping time.
Get yourself a solder-less breadboard, maybe 3 buttons, some LED's and a stepper (if you don't have one already).
Depending on your type of stepper, you may need something to drive it.
Use two buttons or so, if you press one, it would go clockwise, if you press the other, it would go counter clockwise.
Make sure you pull up or down the button inputs, to be sure that they are not floating when the button is not pressed.
Find a way to drive the steppers, you'll most likely use Arduino libraries for this.
Code will be something like:
Scaling up - alternative
You could use the 80 buttons for each angle of the stepper.
But you could also use a keypad and LCD (or 3x 7segment display) to display a value typed in, and then send it to the motor.
In the case of the 80 buttons.
You could use 10 outputs in combination with 8 inputs.
With each output, you can energize a row of buttons, and with each input you read the columns. This way you only need 18 pins to read all keys.
I'm not sure if you want to control all LED's at the same time, or individually.
Or use shift registers or I/O expanders (JayEye).