You have to set your requirements, or atleast elaborate what you want to achieve.
Best would be to program in a set amount of effects on the microcontroller and only send which effect you want to "start" with maybe even a color.
But you have to specify stuff, you should make a list like this:
Length of messages
(Max) baudrate of bluetooth device & microcontroller
amount of bits in the total LED strip
speed of sending bits into the LED strip
Maximal time from sending to effect
Sample calculation for NeoPixel (WS2182)
If you can make a good approximation (or find actual values) you can determine which speed you are going to need. This might even be 1Mhz, try to avoid premature optimization.
60 leds/m for 3M = 180 leds.
24bit data per LED.
180*24 = 4320 bits of data.
One bit takes around 1,3uS, so 4320*1,3 = 5616 uS
Which is 5,616 milliseconds to update the LED strip. (Processor Mhz won't help you here)
Sample calculation for DotStar (APA102)
180 leds, 32bit per LED = 5.760 bits total.
+64 bits (32bit start frame, 32bit end frame).
5824 total bits.
You can set the SPI clock divider to 2.
So if your board runs at 16Mhz, divided by 2, you get 8Mhz SPI output.
8 megahertz = 8 000 000 hertz
The fastest rate is "divide by 2" or one SPI clock pulse every 125 nS. - Nick Gammon (http://www.gammon.com.au/spi)
Neopixels take 0.85us + 0.4us = 1,25 us (1250ns).
So they would be 10x slower.
(never mind this calculation, it was from before using Nicks' facts)
8.000.000 | 5824
1 sec | x
(Your x value will be the time in seconds to update the DotStar strip with SPI@8Mhz)
What was your point?
After this you can check your baudrate + message length to see how long sending/receiving your message will take.
You can then reliably tell if you need 1, 8, 16 or 72Mhz.
I believe the DotStar led strips should be faster, but I haven't completely calculated it out. You could ask yourself if it's worth trying to omptimize that.
BUT, note that the DotStar/SPI led strip allows you to have "interrupts". Which means you can receive characters over the bluetooth while you're writing to the LED strip.
And, we're probably overthinking the situation. But it's better to overthink it using hard values :)