I'm just surfing around the Internet and I've come across these 2 listings.
Are there any significant differences which would force me to pick a specific one?
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tl;dr No difference at the boards, just the location they are made and send from.
As I've got Arduinos for less than $3, I can say the only thing changing is that the cheap one's are, as you can see from the Item Location, are made in China while the not cheap one's are made in Italy or the USA. (Hence the name Genuino for the Ilatian version.)
The More Expensive Ones also provide money for developing new Arduino versions or the IDE, but that does'nt affect function or quality.
Some are build with cheaper capacitors and not with an Atmel-chip for USB-to-Serial-Connection, but that doesn't really have an effect on the usage.
They both come with the Arduino Bootloader and the atmel-Chip is also the same.
The question is an ethical one. But I like to go for the cheap ones and provide a few dollars as donation to wether Arduino S.R.L. or LLC. As these two don't like each other, but that's another topic.
Both are Arduino Uno. The relevant question here is to know where they were manufactured. The ideal is to always buy genuine boards, so you are encouraging the community that keeps it running.
Buying chinese boards if you are lucky they will work fine. If you are not, they Will have a bad board or component.
Many people end up buying a genuine board to develop prototypes and research, ensuring a successful result. However, as they will produce a final product in greater amounts, they end up choosing the Chinese boards due to cost.
I have 4 Arduino boards; 1 genuine Uno and 3 Chinese (2 Uno and 1 Mega). I was lucky in my Uno boards, but the Mega came with the I/O headers soldered in oposite side of the plate.
Check the origin before.
You can use this Spark webstore to choose the best board for you. If you are going to buy just one board, pick a genuine, if you are going to buy a large amount (more than 10) sou y'd better to buy it directly from chinese company, like this you can return the bad boards.