Can an RFID tag be used to identify a room? For example, I walk into a room, and the RFID receiver tells me that I am in say, the living room. Would it be possible for a tag to ping back the signal from a distance of 10ft? Or is there a similar technology like RFID that can extend to a much greater range?
There are newer long range RFID solutions. You can do a google search on "Ultra Long-Range UHF Wireless RFID Sensors" for more information, but almost all of these systems are still proprietary (i.e. I'm not aware of any hobbyist breakout-boards based around UHF tags yet).
The Disney MagicBands are an exact use-case of your question: Their magic bands use a combination of 13MHz RFID tags, and a new UHF active tag (it requires a small battery). They use them to collect data on how people flow through their Walt Disney World facility. What bathrooms see the most activity, and when, for example. There is actually a pretty decent amount of information available about the technology used in the Disney Magicbands if you're curious about the technology.