I have a large quantity of gyro values and I read them through the Arduino serial monitor. I'd like to know how I can use these values in other programming languages (such as C/C++/Java) after the values are read. Are there particular libraries for the Arduino that could help me in this way?
If your Arduino sketch is printing the data as ASCII numeric strings (human-readable), then any language with support for reading and writing to a serial device can interact with your Arduino on the port it is connected to, and collect the gyro data as it is being sent.
Yes, of course you can.
In C/C++ there are different libraries depending on your operating system - that is if you even really need a library to help you at all (in Linux you certainly don't - you just use standard system calls - open, read, etc).
In Java there are a few different ones. RXTX is a common (though not very good) one. Personally I ise JSSC(Java Simple Serial Connector) since it contains the JNI files for all the main platforms - you don't have to get the right separate library packages for your specific OS like you do with RXTX.
Then of course there's things like PySerial for Python, Device::SerialPort for Perl, and whatever nonsense Microsoft have created for C# and their .NET stuff.
So in general: pick a language you are comfortable with, then ask Google how to use the serial port in it.