Robotics is a very large field covering a lot of disciplines, such as:
- Motor and sensor control and interfacing
- Mechanics and kinematics
- Visual and optical processing
And many more.
The Arduino side of things is mostly concerned with the first point - the interfacing and control of motors and sensors, etc.
For robotics probably the most important thing to get to grips with is servo motors. If you can leave the mechanics side of things to someone else for now (to build a robot from the ground up would require metal working skills, welding, and more, which we're not really able to help you with) and start with a "kit" robot of some form to get you going that would be the best entry point IMHO. One such kit that I have been looking at recently and is easily available on eBay is the "6DOF" robot arm (note: the servos are sold separately normally). Just add cheaply available standard model servos and interface them to an Arduino and you have a robot arm you can program to do things.
And that's when the fun starts. Learning to program for robotics does often involve some more advanced mathematics, so be prepared to have to do some study...
As for what board to use? Your MSP430 board is more than capable of controlling robotics. Not sure about the programming aspect of it - in general it's TI's own IDE and programming environment, but I do know that some of their boards (not sure about that one) are supported by a port of the Arduino IDE.