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First question: Since we can control the volts that we can throw via PWM pins on Arduino, can we use it to power the 3.3 V ESP8266?

Second question: Can we also use these PWM pins as software serial pins i.e. they will be sending instructions at 3.3 V?

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First question, Since we can control the volts that we can throw via PWM pins on Arduino, can we use it to power the 3.3v ESP8266?

No. The ESP8266 draws far too much current (in excess of 200mA) to use anything other than a proper supply.

Second question, Can we also use these PWM pins as Software serial pins i.e. they will be sending instructions at 3.3v?

We'll drop the "also", since we've decided that you're not doing that.

You can use SoftwareSerial on any GPIO pins you like, provided the RX pin supports pin change interrupts.

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    and... the answer to the "sending instructions at 3.3V" will also be... No! setting the output voltage to 3.3V in a PWM output means to tell the board to send a series of 5V pulses so that, IN AVERAGE, the voltage is 3.3V. see PWM on wikipedia for more info – frarugi87 Oct 2 '15 at 9:40
  • Dont forget: Sending a 5V signal via serial connection to your ESP will destroy him !!! Use two resistors (2 * 10k) to divide your voltage (will work with 9600 baud) – Fruchtzwerg Oct 2 '15 at 12:58

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